Raf ul-Yadayn (Raising The Hands In Salah)
Hazrat Jaabir Ibn Samurah (رضي الله عنه) relates that once Rasulullah (صلي الله عليه وسلم) came out of his house towards us and said: "Why is it that I see you all raising your hands as though they are the tails of stubborn horses. Be tranquil in salaah." [Sahih Muslim, Hadith 430]
This hadith alone makes it clear that those narrations which mention the raising of the hands (during the salaah) were narrated prior to the prohibition of this practice.
42 Sahih Evidences For Not Raising The Hands In Salah (Raf ul-Yadayn): http://www.muftisays.com/blog/Seifeddine-M/1117_03-02-2011/the-question-of-raf-ul.yadain.html
Why Dont Hanafis Raise Their Hands Before And After Ruku? http://www.muftisays.com/blog/Seifeddine-M/596_24-11-2010/why-don%27t-hanafis-raise-their-hands-before-and-after-ruku%27%3F.html
Raising The Hands In Salah (Raf ul-Yadayn): http://www.muftisays.com/blog/Seifeddine-M/448_15-10-2010/raising-the-hands-in-salah-%28raf-al.yadayn%29.html
The Issue Of Raful Yadayn: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yF_-tGe3nOE&feature=player_embedded
Proof from the PRACTICE of Rasulullah (صلي الله عليه وسلم)
Hazrat Abdullah Ibn Mas'ud (رضي الله عنه) said: "Shall I not show you the manner in which Rasulullah (صلي الله عليه وسلم) performed his salaah?" Thereafter he performed the salaah but he did not raise his hands except at the beginning (of his salaah). [Tirmidhi, Hadith no.257] This Hadith is classified Hasan. Ibn Hazm (رحمه الله) has declared it as sahih. Ahmed Shakir (رحمه الله) has also declared it as sahih.
Proof from the Practice of the Sahaabah (رضي الله عنهم أجمعين)
It is related that Hazrat Ali (كرم الله وجهه) used to raise his hands at the time of the first Takbeer (during his salaah). Thereafter he did not raise them. [Sunan al Bayhaqi]
(The commentators of Bukhari Shareef, Allaama Ibn Hajar (رحمه الله), Allaama Zayla'i (رحمه الله) and Allaama 'Aini (رحمه الله) have said that this narration and its chain of narrators is Sahih)
One should take note of the fact that the practice of Hazrat Umar, the remaining Khulafa-e-Raashideen, Hazrat Abdullah Ibn Mas'ud and many more Sahaabah (رضي الله عنهم أجمعين) was the same, that they only raised their hands at the time of the first takbeer. Imaam Tirmidhi (رحمه الله) also states that this was the practice of a great number of the Sahaabah (رضي الله عنهم أجمعين).
When Straightening Up From Rukoo' (Bowing), Do Not Fasten Your Hands But Leave Them At Your Sides*
*Note: this section on leaving the hands at the side is not part of the article by Shaykh Muhammad Ilyas Faisal (may Allaah reward with him with goodness).
As part of a longer hadeeth it is reported that when Sayyiduna Ali رضي الله عنه would stand up for prayer and say the takbeer he would place his right hand on his left wrist. He would remain like this until he bowed down into ruku.'
Leaving the hands hanging at the side after ruku' has always been the practice of the entire ummah. The method of fastening the hands at this time as adopted by certain people has never been mentioned by any of the Sahābah رضي الله عنهم أجمعين in their narrations despite being so particular and diligent in their description of Rasulullah's صلي الله عليه وسلم prayer and in turn this has never been quoted as being the practice of anyone from amongst the Sahābah, Tabi'un or Tab' Tabieen رضي الله عنهم أجمعين.
 Ibn Abi Shaibah 3940 and Baihaqi 2333.
[The Salah Of A Believer In The Qur'an And Sunnah]
When Descending For Sajdah (Prostration), Allow Your Knees To First Touch The Ground Followed By The Hands *
*Note: this section on allowing the knees to touch the ground first is not part of the article by Shaykh Muhammad Ilyas Faisal (may Allaah reward with him with goodness).
Sayyiduna Wail Ibn Hujr رضي الله عنه, 'I saw Rasulullah صلي الله عليه وسلم place his knees (on the ground) before his hands when he would prostrate, and lift up his hands before his knees when rising.'
Khattabi,  Tibi, Ibn al Mundhir,  and Ibn Sayyid al Naas al Ya'muri have all declared the above hadeeth of Sayyiduna Wail Ibn Hujr رضي الله عنه as more established and authentic than the hadeeth of Sayyiduna Abu Hurairah رضي الله عنه on the same subject.
This hadeeth is supported by the following narrations:
Sayyiduna Anas رضي الله عنه says, 'I saw Rasulullah صلي الله عليه وسلم say the takbeer and place his thumbs close to his ears. He bowed down into ruku' until each of his joints became motionless, and then descended (into sujūd) with the takbeer. His knees went before his hands.'
Sayyiduna Abu Hurairah رضي الله عنه reports that Rasulullah صلي الله عليه وسلم said, 'When one of you falls down into sajdah he should begin with his knees before his hands and he should not descend in the manner of a camel.'
Sayyiduna Abu Hurairah رضي الله عنه reports that Rasulullah صلي الله عليه وسلم said, 'When one of you falls down into sajdah does he do so in the manner of a camel?'
Sayyiduna Sa'd bin Abi Waqqas رضي الله عنه says, 'We used to place our hands before our knees, then we were instructed to place our knees before our hands.'
Kulaib رضي الله عنه narrates that when Rasulullah صلي الله عليه وسلم would prostrate his knees would fall to the ground before his hands.
Sayyiduna Hakeem Ibn Hizam رضي الله عنه says, 'I pledged to Rasulullah صلي الله عليه وسلم that I would not descend except whilst being upright.'
Sayyiduna Ubayy Ibn Ka'b رضي الله عنه narrates that Rasulullah صلي الله عليه وسلم would fall down upon his knees and not lean.
Aswad رحمه الله reports that Sayyiduna Umar رضي الله عنه would fall down on his knees.
The same has been reported about Sayyiduna Umar رضي الله عنه by Alqamah (رحمه الله) and Ibrahim al Nakhai (رحمه الله). 
Ibrahim al Nakhai (رحمه الله) says, 'It has been remembered of Ibn Mas'ood رضي الله عنه that his knees would fall to the ground before his hands.'
'Abdullah rرحمه الله elates that when his father (Muslim Ibn Asaar رحمه الله) would prostrate his knees would fall to the ground followed by his hands and then his head.
Nafi' (رحمه الله) reports that when Ibn Umar رضي الله عنهما would prostrate he would place his knees before his hands and when rising from the prostration he would raise his hands before his knees.
Abu Ishaq (رحمه الله) relates that when the companions of 'Abdullah (ibn Mas'ood) رضي الله عنه would descend for sujūd their knees would fall to the ground before their hands.
Mahdi bin Maimoon (رحمه الله) says, 'I saw Ibn Seereen (رحمه الله) place his knees before his hands.'
Mugheerah (rرحمه الله) says, 'I asked Ibraheem (al Nakhai - رحمه الله) about a man who places his hands before his knees when falling down into sujūd. He replied, "Only a fool or mad man would do it."'
Imam Tirmidhi (رحمه الله) says after narrating the above hadeeth of Sayyiduna Wail bin Hujr رضي الله عنه, 'This is the practice of most of the people of learning. They are of the view that a man should place his knees before his hands, and when rising he should lift his hands before his knees.'
(Salaah of a believer, in the Qur'an and Sunnah, Shaykh Riyadh Ul Haq)
 Darimi 1320, Ibn Majah 882, Abu Dawood 838, Tirmidhi 268, Nasai 1089, Ibn Khuzaimah 626, and Tahawi 1/255. Also reported by Ibn al Sakan in his Saheeh as quoted by Hafidh bin Hajar in al Talkhees al Habeer 1/254 no. 379. Narrated also by Ibn Hibban 1909, Hakim 822, Baihaqi 2628 and Baghawi 3/133 no 642. Imam Tirmidhi says that the hadeeth is hasan ghareeb and Hakim has declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed. This hadeeth has also been narrated with other chains.
 As mentioned by Hafidh in Fath al Bari 2/370, and Baghawi in Sharh al Sunnah 3/135.
 In al Awsat 3/166
 Hakim 822 and Baihaqi 2632. Hakim classified it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed with him. Hafidh Ibn al Humam quotes Ibn al Jawzi in Fath al Qadeer 1/287 as saying that all of its narrators are authentic
 Ibn Abi Shaibah 2702, Abu Ya'laa 11/414 no 6540, Tahawi 1/255 and Baihaqi 2635.
 Abu Dawood 841, Nasai 1090 and Baihaqi 2636.
 Ibn Khuzaimah 828 and Baihaqi 2637. Hafidh Ibn Hajar says in Fath al Bari that two of its narrators are weak.
 Baihaqi 2630. This hadeeth is mursal.
 Ahmad 14888 and Nasai 1084.
 Ibn Hibban as quoted by Hafidh Haithami in Mawarid al Dhamaan 497.
 Ibn Abi Shaibah 2704.
 Tahawi 1/256. Imam Nimawi says 432 that its isnad is saheeh.
 Abdul Razzaq 2955.
 Tahawi 1/256. Muhaddith Dhafar Ahmad Uthmani says 3/35 that its isnad is saheeh.
 Abdul Razzaq 2958 and Ibn Abi Shaibah 2706.
 Ibn Abi Shaibah 2705.
 Ibn Abi Shaibah 2711.
 Ibn Abi Shaibah 2709.
 Abdul Razzaq 2956 & 2957, Ibn Abi Shaibah 2707, and Tahawi 1/256. Muhaddith Dhafar Ahmad Uthmani says that its narrators are authentic (3/35).
Jalsatul Istiraaha - Sitting briefly After The 2nd Sajdah Of The First Or Third Rakaat
In a narration from the ibn Sahl (رضي الله عنه) it is mentioned that Rasulullah (صلي الله عليه وسلم) said the takbeer and simultaneously went into sajdah. Then he said the takbeer and simultaneously stood up erect without sitting. [Abu Daud, Hadith no. 966]
Imaam Bayhaqi (رحمه الله) has recorded in his Sunan that this was the practice of Hazrat Abdullah Ibn Mas'ud (رضي الله عنه). Allaama Zayla'i (رحمه الله) has recorded in Nasabur Raayah that the same procedure was the practice of Hazrat Umar, Ali, Abdullah Ibn Zubeir and Abdullah Ibn Abbaas (رضي الله عنهم أجمعين). (vol. 1, pg. 289)
Likewise Allaamah Turkumaani (رحمه الله) has recorded in Jauharun Naqi regarding several Sahaaba (رضي الله عنهم أجمعين) that it was their practice that after the first and third rakaat they would stand up straight from sajdah without sitting. (vol. 1, pg. 125)
Rasulullah (صلي الله عليه وسلم) is reported to have said: "When you sit during salaah (for Qa'dah Akheerah, the last Qa'dah) read the following:-
"All oral, physical and monetary worship is due to Allah alone. Salutations to you 'O Nabi, and the mercy and blessings of Allah be upon you. Peace be upon us and upon all the righteous servants of Allah. I bear witness that none is worthy of worship besides Allah and that Muhammad is his servant and messenger. Thereafter he would choose from the supplications whatever he wished." [Sahih Muslim, Hadith no. 402; Sahih Bukhari, chapter on Tashahhud].
Rasing the Index Finger During Tashahhud
It is narrated that when Rasulullah (صلي الله عليه وسلم) used to sit down to supplicate, (to recite tashahhud) he used to place his right hand on his right thigh and his left hand on his left thigh. He would indicate at the time of reciting the shahadah by raising his index finger. He would also join the ends of his thumb and middle finger (thereby forming a circle). [Sahih Muslim, chapter on the description of sitting-Hadith no.579]
The Sahaabah-e-Kiraam (رضي الله عنهم أجمعين) inquired from Rasulullah (صلي الله عليه وسلم) as to which durood should they recite (during salaah). Rasulullah (صلي الله عليه وسلم) replied: "Recite the following durood- (trans: O Allah shower your mercy upon Muhammad and the family of Muhammad as you have showered your mercy upon Ibrahim and the family of Ibrahim. Behold, you are Praiseworthy, Glorious. O Allah shower your blessings upon Muhammad and the family of Muhammad as you have showered your blessings upon Ibrahim and the family of Ibrahim. Behold, you are Praiseworthy, Glorious.)"
Saying the Salam at the Same Time as the Imam says it *
*Note: this section on Salam is not part of the article by Shaykh Muhammad Ilyas Faisal (may Allaah reward with him with goodness).
It is related that 'Itban رضي الله عنه said, "We prayed with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said the salam at the same time as he said it."
Raising Both the Hands and Making Dua
It is narrated that Abdullah Ibn Zubair (رضي الله عنه) saw a man raising his hands and making dua before completing his salah. When the person had completed his salaah, Hazrat Abdullah Ibn Zubair (رضي الله عنه) went up to him and said: "Verily, Rasulullah (صلي الله عليه وسلم) used to only raise his hands and make dua after completing his salaah." (the narrators of this Hadith are all trustworthy - Majmauz Zawaaid, vol. 1, pg. 169).
It is also mentioned in the Fataawa of Ahle Hadith (vol. 1, pg.190) as well as in Fataawa Nazeeriyyaa (vol. 1, pg. 566) that in the light of the Sharia, the dua after salaah is an authentically established practice and it is mustahab to do so.
Also see: Wiping The Face After Dua: http://www.muftisays.com/blog/Seifeddine-M/1061_28-01-2011/wiping-the-face-after-du%27a.html
(Sifatus Salaah: The Method of Salaah in the Light of Authentic Ahadith, Shaykh Muhammad Ilyas Faisal)
To be continued إن شاء الله