Also, one finds it very difficult to ascertain what ibn Arabi is trying to say, so his work should be reserved for the high calibre scholars.
Yes Abu Muhammed.. this was the deciding factor where the balance of even some major scholars wavered in history..
May Allah سبحانه وتعالى Bless Hakeem ul Ummat Hazrat Thanwi رحمة الله عليه that when this ball of complexities reached his hands he separated the threads one by one.. meticulously..
That many such litanies which since ages had been raised to the rank of Masnoon were replaced by the authentic Adhkar of Nabi .. and Tasawwuf was revived again in the light of kitaab & sunnah..
while suspicions and ghuloo were cast upon the Chishtiya Mashaikh he wrote As'Sunnat ul Jaleeya fi Chishtiyatul Aliya - as a refutation of Assumptions and Accusations from both sides- the Ahlul Bidah who with their defective understanding of the Chishti Mashaikh made them a scape goat for their own waywardness & corruption.. as well as those who blatantly accused them of not being on the Kitaab and Sunnah which infact they were strictly adherent to.
As regards to Shaikh Muhiyuddin Ibn Arabi رحمة الله عليه and Shaikh Mansoor Al Hallaj رحمة الله عليه he guided Hazrat Maulana Zafar Ahmed uthmani رحمة الله عليه to write Al Qawl Al Mansoor fi Ibn Al Mansoor clearing the accusations.. striking a balanced view..
Mufakkir e islam Hazrat Maulana Syed Abul Hasan Ali sahab Nadwi رحمة الله عليه had also rendered his services in the completion of this book.. as shown here..
This is the book.. i had written a translation of the Muqaddamah by Hazrat Maulana Zafar Ahmed Uthmani رحمة الله عليه which i shall post here إن شاء الله
What is written by OP and later by dr76 is the History of how tasawwuf evolved,agreeing or disagreeing is a matter totally different.Some topics are good for academic interest,this thread is one of them.
The book begins with opening words from Shaikh ul Islam Hazrat Mufti Taqi Uthmani sahab (db) (which I shall post some other time إن شاء الله ). Here is the translation of foreword by Hazrat Maulana Zafar Ahmed Uthmani رحمة الله عليه
Al Qawl al mansur fi ibn al Mansur: Page:17 - 20.
"1) The aim of this book is to intercede and defend the Jamaat of Ahl ullah.. That to dishonour and disrespect them is akin to invite destruction.. Hazrat Hakeem ul ummat damat barakathum used to say that keeping Husn e zann with a Ghair Maqbool brings in no harm..and to slander a Maqbool is very harmful.. this is just like behaving decently with an ignoble which is not disapproving..but treating like an outcast someone who is highly noble is really very bad..
Such that Hussain bin Mansoor Hallaj is regarded amongst the ' Maqbooleen ' (Accepted ones) by our akabir and it shall be clarified ahead.. And that some of ulema have indeed used harsh words on him. That this book aims to research and highlight his life and conditions and deduce the true meaning of his sayings..by which people have unnecessarily misunderstood him.. And that they reverse their mistrust with ‘Husn e zann’.. "
2) Allama Sherani رحمة الله عليه quotes a statement of Shaikh Muhiyuddin Ibn Arabi رحمة الله عليه in 'Tabaqat' :
"At times the hearts of Arifeen are subjected to such breeze of Tajalliyat e ilahiyya (divine manifestations) that if they start speaking about it even the Aarifeen kamileen fail to comprehend ..of course to be totally annulled by the Ahl e zahir..but at this instance the thought departs from their minds that when Allah سبحانه وتعالى bestows karamat upon the Awliya in lieu of Mu'jazat conferred upon Ambiya karaam , then why are they amazed when Allah سبحانه وتعالى gifts their tongues with such ibaraat which the ulema fail to understand..".
Those who doubt these words should refer to the book 'Al Mushahid' by shaikh ibn arabi رحمة الله عليه,or 'Ash Sha'ir' by Sayyidi Muhammed رحمة الله عليه, or ' Khala An na'lain' by Ibn Qusi رحمة الله عليه, or ' Anniqa'a Maghrib' by Shaikh Ibn Arabi رحمة الله عليه.. that even the great ulema could not understand its meaning.. or by those who have entered the court of the exalted along with the Mutakallim can better comprehend .. As this is the language divine ..Only to be accessed by the angels. Or by those freed from the shackles of mankind..or by those guided by pure kashf.."
(Tabaqat al kubra Page 21).
(Foot note: And in our times one may study Aab e Hayat by Hazrat Maulana Muhammed Qasim Nanotawi رحمة الله عليه that even though being written in Urdu, many reputed scholars fail to understand .
One may study Abaqat By Hazrat Maulana Shah Ismail Shaheed رحمة الله عليه or Tafheemat e Ilahiya by Hazrat Shah Waliullah Muhaddith Dehlawi رحمة الله عليه that even those endowed with knowledge do not comprehend many of its subtleties.)
3) To curse and taunt the Jamaat of sufiya has been in vogue since the times of Zinnoon Misri رحمة الله عليه and Bayazid Bustami رحمة الله عليه up to this age and in every period.
Such that Sayyidi Ibrahim Dasoti رحمة الله عليه has written about a certain people who have even mocked at one Jamaat of sahaba karaam رضي الله عنهم, called some of them "Riya kar" and some "Munafiq".
Its known that Hazrat Zubair رضي الله عنه would pray salaat with lots of khushu that some people started calling him 'Riya kaar' (ostentatious). Allah سبحانه وتعالى has given a daleel for such by saying:
And We have made some of you a test for some others. Would you observe patience? And your Lord is Ever-seeing. (Al Furqan:20)
And from this tribulation and fitnah every wali gets his due share,that tribulation has an inherent nobility.Therefore Allah سبحانه وتعالى has collected all such trials and tribulations for the khawas (people of distinction) of this ummah which were earlier found scattered and varied amongst previous ummah. This is because Allah سبحانه وتعالى has raised the stature of this ummah.
Such that Hazrat Bayazid Bustami رحمة الله عليه was exiled seven times from his place. complaints about Zinnoon Misri رحمة الله عليه were sent to some rulers and he was brought to Baghdad in such a state that he was chained from neck to toe.
When the khalifa cast his glance on him,engaging him in conversation, listening to the beauty of his speech.. he all of a sudden exclaimed that "If this person was a zandeeq then there does not exists a single Muslim on the face of the earth..!"
Sam’oon Muhib رحمة الله عليه was also made to stand many trials. The khalifa of his time had ordered death penalty for him and his companions.Due to which he stayed hidden for many years.
The ulema due to certain words of Shaikh Abu saeed faraaz رحمة الله عليه which were found in his Maktubat had done Takfeer of him.
in the same manner the crooked ulema had raised outcry against Zinnoon Misri رحمة الله عليه forcing him on a boat to sail towards the Sultan of Misr, so that they could give testimony on his kufr.
He came to know of it and cried out “ O' Allah.. if these people are liars then drown them all..! ”. The boat capsized and all of them perished in full public view.
Sahl bin abdullah رضي الله عنه was exiled from his place.Many foul allegations were heaped upon him.that he was also called as kafir. He migrated to Basra and stayed there till his last breath. whereas he was infact a person of high stature endowed with ilm , Ma’arifah and Mujahidaat.
Hazrat Junaid Baghdadi رحمة الله عليه delivered a lecture on Tauheed and people testified against him. He then turned towards Fiqh to remain in secrecy, whereas his ilm and distinguished position is an established fact.
Shaikh Abi Hamza رحمة الله عليه had only to declare that he had the vision of Rasulullah in a wakeful state that people formed a council against him,after which he would not step out of his house. He would come out only for Jum’a and remained in this state till he died.
And be it known that Shaikh Yousuf ibn Al Hussain رحمة الله عليه was slandered and discarded from his position, but he did not care much, as he knew what he had achieved.People also did Takfeer of Imam Saeeki رحمة الله عليه even though he had excelled in both ilm and Amal,undertook great Mujahidaat .. was a strict observer of Sunnah.
Shaikh Abul Hassan Hasri رحمة الله عليه was also slandered with Takfeer, That some of his words were sent to the chief Qadhi. He was summoned and questioned upon,resulting in banning him from keeping any gathering at the Jama masjid..
Imam Ghazali رحمة الله عليه had also been stamped with Takfeer and his book Ihya was burnt. Among those who opposed & made Takfeer of Imam Ghazzali رحمة الله عليه issuing Fatwa to burn his books were Qadhi Ayaz and Ibn Rushd.
When the news reached Imam Ghazali رحمة الله عليه.. he invoked Allah’s wrath on the Qadhi.
The Qadhi had a sudden death in his bath. Some even report that the khalifa had ordered him to be killed.
And this is how many Ulema and sufiya underwent trails.. the hardships borne by the four Imams Hazrat Imam Abu Hanifa رحمة الله عليه ,Imam Malik رحمة الله عليه, Imam Shafi'i رحمة الله عليه and Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal رحمة الله عليه are well known in the books of virtues. (Tabaqat sherani, 15- 41)
Thus deriving notions about an individual from the harsh words of his companions or from weak narratives of historians or from fatawa of some ulema and basing Takfeer on it cannot be a daleel to judge him as a heretic and accursed.
Else no Wali or scholar can remain Maqbool (Accepted).. because very few have been spared of such trails and tribulations ..
So it should be seen where the scales tilt to.. towards the Aqwal (sayings) and opinion of Muafiqeen (votaries) or towards the Mukhalifeen (opponents).
If the hearts of people of Islam are filled with the conviction of Maqbooliyat and Wilayat of the individual and the accusations of opponents bore no effect on it.. Then such is Maqbool and a wali.
And if the condition is just the opposite, then he cannot be Maqbool and a wali. And such is the daleel of Allah سبحانه وتعالى
This cannot be undone and I am sure it will be greatly appreciated.
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