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Contamination of Food

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#1 [Permalink] Posted on 24th February 2015 12:41
What is contamination of food and when is it Halal or Haram when there is some sort of cross contamination?

This is an indepth topic and needs some serious understanding of Fiqh.

InshaAllah, this thread will attempt to provide evidence of how and what cross contamination is and if and when the food actually becomes haram.

 

To start with, here are a couple of Hadith to set the benchmark inshaAllah.

This is an authentic hadîth related in Sahîh al-Bukhârî and Sahîh Muslim.

Abû Tha`labah al-Khushanî said to Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him): "We come from a land populated by the People of the Scripture. Can we eat from their dishes? 

The Prophet (peace be upon him) replied: "Do not eat from them unless you do not find anything else to eat from. In that case, wash them and eat from them." 

 

Abû Sa`îd al-Khudrî relates that Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him)said: "Water possesses the power to purify; nothing can contaminate it."

This hadîth is related in Musnad Ahmad, Sunan Abî Dâwûd, Sunan al-Tirmidhî, Sunan al-Nasâ'î, Sunan al-Dâraqutnî, Sunan al-Bayhaqî, and others.

It is an authentic hadîth. It was declared authentic by Ahmad b. Hanbal, Yahyâ b. Ma`în, Ibn al-Mulaqqin, al-Baghawî, and others. Al-Tirmidhî said: "It is a good (hasan) hadîth." 
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#2 [Permalink] Posted on 24th February 2015 12:49
Question
“Assalamu alaikum Warahmatullahi Wabarakatuh

Fiqhi Rulings do not apply to things which ‘may have’ occurred. They only apply to definite occurrences.

Even if pork had come into contact with with utensils or devices like food processors, once they are purified with water (washing thoroughly and making sure all impurities are visibly removed), it is pure to use hence would be permissible to buy and use.”
I wanted to ask after having seen this answer-:
I have just moved into a rented house, where things have been used by previous people e.g grill, oven etc. The grill has grease on it (as grills do) am i obliged to wash it before use, as the grill could be contaminated with haraam food effects?

so the question is do i have to purify it first? can you tell me how to do this, i thing it will take a long time for me to remove the grease.

Answer
Assalamu’alaikum w.w.
The following will suffice.

You only need to clean surfaces which will come into
direct contact with food, e.g. grill.

For this, turn the grill on to full heat until the
grease melts, the grill meshing becomes dry and no
signs of fat remain. This will render the grill
Taahir. (Paak/Pure).

Wallahu A’alam

————————————–
(Mufti) Abdullah Patel
Halal Food Guide

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#3 [Permalink] Posted on 24th February 2015 12:58
A Non Hanafi Answer

en.islamtoday.net/quesshow-142-3736.htm

Using dishes that may have formerly been used to cook pork
Question
Can we use dishes that non-Muslims had formerly used to cook pork or other unlawfully slaughtered meat or used to eat such meat from? I ask in reference to the hadith about the dishes of the people of the Book: "Do not eat from them unless you do not find anything else to eat from. In that case, wash them and eat from them.”
Answered by
Sheikh Salman al-Oadah
This is an authentic hadîth related in Sahîh al-Bukhârî and Sahîh Muslim.

Abû Tha`labah al-Khushanî said to Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him): "We come from a land populated by the People of the Scripture. Can we eat from their dishes?

The Prophet (peace be upon him) replied: "Do not eat from them unless you do not find anything else to eat from. In that case, wash them and eat from them."

The wording of the hadîth gives a general prohibition of using such dishes if other dishes are availible, meaning that this prohibition applies even if we know that those dishes are clean and free from impurities. The basic assumption in Islamic jurisprudence would be that the prohibition of the Prophet (peace be upon him) indicates the unlawfulness of doing the prohibited act.

However, in this case, we have Allah’s statement in the Qur’ân: “The food of those who have been given the Scripture is lawful to you.” [Sûrah al-Mâ’idah: 5]

Moreover, there are many cases where the Prophet (peace be upon him) ate the food of the People of the Book. All of this shows us that the prohibition given in the hadîth under discussion cannot mean that eating from such dishes is unlawful. Scholars differ as to whether doing so is generally disliked or generally permissible.

The strongest opinion on the matter is that such dishes are lawful to use, even if it is known that they had formerly been tainted by impurities like pork or the meat of unlawfully slaughtered animals. This is the position of the Hanbalî school of thought. It is supported by a large body of evidence which is as follows:

1. Allah says: “He is the one who created for you everything that is on the Earth.” [Sûrah al-Baqarah: 29] This verse indicates that the default ruling for everything is an underlying assumption of permissibility. These dishes fall under the general ruling indicated by this verse.

2. Allah also says: “The food of those who have been given the Scripture is lawful to you.” [Sûrah al-Mâ’idah: 5] Since their food is prepared and served with their dishes and utensils, it follows that their dishes are lawful as well.

3. The Companions performed their ablutions in front of the Prophet (peace be upon him) from the water left over by a pagan woman. Both he and they drank from that water. [Sahîh al-Bukhârî and Sahîh Muslim] If it was unlawful to use their dishes, the Prophet (peace be upon him) would not have allowed them to use that water or drink from it.

4. One of the strongest pieces of evidence supporting this view is the hadîth related by Jâbir who said: “We used to go on military expeditions with Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him) and acquire the dishes and drinking vessels of the pagans. We would use these things and did not consider doing so to be objectionable.” [Musnad Ahmad (3/379, 327, 343, 389), Sunan Abî Dâwûd (2/391), Musnad al-Bazzâr (1/32), and Sunan al-Bayhaqî (1/218)] In Irwâ’ al-Ghalîl, al-Albani determines the chain of transmission for this hadîth to be authentic.

It is a well-known historical fact that during their military campaigns, the Muslims used to acquire the dishes and cookware of the pagans and freely use such things. They were never ordered to avoid these items. This shows that such dishes were permissible to use and were assumed to be free from impurities.

If there had been something wrong with using those dishes, it would have been a matter public concern that all the Muslims would have needed to be informed of. It would have been widely discussed and related to others. The fact that no such discussion has reached us is proof that no problem ever existed.

6. The Prophet (peace be upon him) and his Companions used to live alongside the pagans in Mecca. In many cases, a Muslim would have been living with his pagan parents in a pagan household. Later on, the Muslims emigrated to Madinah, which was inhabited by both Jews and pagans. It was not uncommon that that they would invite one another to their homes for food and offer each other something to drink. It has never been mentioned even once that the Muslim avoided using the dishes of the non-Muslims or so much as expressed an aversion to doing so.

If we think about it, this last point is the strongest evidence there can be, since it shows a widespread practice of the Companions that has the strength of a mutawâtir (widespread) narration. Such sweeping evidence cannot be dismissed on the basis of texts that make no decisive statement on the matter and that are open to multiple interpretations, especially when those texts can be easily reconciled without any contradiction.

From the strength of all this evidence, we maintain that the strongest opinion is that such dishes are permissible to use as long as they are clean. And Allah knows best.

As far as the hadîth you asked about, it needs to be understood in its proper context. In his commentary on Sahîh Muslim, al-Nawawî observes that the dishes that were being asked about on that particular occassion were those that that the questioner knew had been specifically used for cooking pork and for drinking alcoholic beverages. This is clearly mentioned in the narration of the hadîth that is found in Sunan Abî Dâwûd. The reason why using such dishes is disliked, even after washing tthem, is out of distaste for using items that are frequently used for impure things. Therefore, eating from such dishes is disliked, even after washing them.

The hadîth of Abû Tha`labah refers to the specific situation he was coping with in his locality, where the non-Muslims were eating pork and drinking alcohol from the dishes in question. The answer that he received was appropriate for his situation. It is not a ruling that applies generally to all the dishes of all non-Muslims.

What we can say generally is that the dishes of non-Muslims – whether they be those of Jews, Christians, Magians, or pagans – should preferably be washed before use if such dishes are often used for impure things like pork, even if those dishes are clean. Of course, if those dishes are actually contaminated with impurities, there is no argument that we must wash them before we can use them.

It is disliked - but not unlawful - for Muslims to use dishes that are known with certainty to be frequently used for unlawful and impure things if other dishes are available. In this case, it is preferable to use the dishes of Muslims as well as the dishes of non-Muslims that are not frequently used for impure and unlawful things.

And Allah knows best.
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#4 [Permalink] Posted on 24th February 2015 13:09
Answered by Mufti Yusuf Mullan

I was wondering if it is allowed for us to eat Pizza, since many if not all of the stores that serve Pizza have a pizza slicer, that they use to cut pie’s that may have pepperoni on it. Does that make the Pizza dirty? Secondly would be able to eat anything, such as eggs, cooked on a grill. Because they may likewise cook bacon on the grill.

Answer:
In the Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful
In the name of Allah, ar-Rahman, ar-Raheem and may his abundant blessings be showered on his beloved prophet, the best of creation.

In themselves vegetarian and cheese pizzas are permissible for Muslims to order from pizza out-lets and consume. In order to avoid possible contamination as mentioned in the question, employees can be asked to use washed utensils and cutting knifes.

Having undertaken these precautions, eating will be lawful, provided no other clear sign of contamination exists. This is the legal ruling regarding such pizzas.

However, since vegetarian and cheese pizzas are cooked in the same ovens as pizzas with pork and other haram toppings, avoiding even these would be strongly recommended. It is highly possible for the grease from the pork etc. to accumulate on the ceiling of the oven and then drip down onto the vegetarian pizza, thus contaminating it.

And Allah knows best.

Yusuf Mullan,
www.shariahprogram.ca/

[Mufti Yusuf Mullan is Director of the Toronto Shariah Program (www.shariahprogram.ca). After long years of study, he completed the specialization in fiqh & legal verdicts (ifta’) under top scholars such as Shaykh Taqi Usmani Shaykh Mahmud Usmani.]

My addition - In other words if this does not happen, then there is no harm in it
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#5 [Permalink] Posted on 24th February 2015 13:24
Question
Please give me a correct Fatwa with reference and documents. I don’t have any Imam in my area to ask this question.
I am living in Australia. There is a company who is selling pork and also Halal meat. Is it permissible to eat their halal meat? The information about Halal meat in the store is below:

With this we try to please as many people as possible. YES…Our beef and Lamb is slaughtered halal. However we do cut pork in the same room. The pork mince is cut on a seperate mincer. Our sliced pork is cut on ONE bench first thing in the morning and when finished the benches are washed rinsed and sanitized before cutting lamb. The problem is that we cannot TECHNICALLY authorize our beef and lamb as Halal due to the fact that the meat is opened and sliced in the same room therefore it breathes the same air. We do the best we can to respect the religion and even store pork in our coolroom seperately from other products. I hope this helps.

Answer
In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

According to the information provided from the store, the beef, lamb and pork are cut in the same room. The pork is cut first and then the beef and lamb. The possibility of contamination cannot be ruled out by merely washing, rinsing and sanitizing the benches.

In issues of Halal and Haram, we are required to exercise extreme precaution[1]. Therefore, if there is a slight possibility of any contamination whatsoever, the meat will still be regarded as Haram[2].

Our advice is you contact Mufti Faizal Riza of Darul Iftaa Melbourne for further guidance on the issue. You may contact him through www.fatwa.org.au/.

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best

Mufti Ebrahim Desai.

www.daruliftaa.net

[1] عن عامر، قال: سمعت النعمان بن بشير، يقول: سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول: ” الحلال بين، والحرام بين، وبينهما مشبهات لا يعلمها كثير من الناس، فمن اتقى المشبهات استبرأ لدينه وعرضه، ومن وقع في الشبهات: كراع يرعى حول الحمى، يوشك أن يواقعه، ألا وإن لكل ملك حمى، ألا إن حمى الله في أرضه محارمه، ألا وإن في الجسد مضغة: إذا صلحت صلح الجسد كله، وإذا فسدت فسد الجسد كله، ألا وهي القلب

[Sahīh al-Bukhārī, 1: 20; 3: 53]

قال رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم: دع ما يريبك إلي ما لا يريبك

[Sunan al-Tirmidhī, 2: 78, H. M. Saeed]

[Fatāwā Mahmūdiyyah, 18: 50-1, Dār al-Iftā Jāmiah Fāruqiyyah, Karachi]

[2] (قال) وإن رمى صيدا بعض قوائمه في الحل، وبعضها في الحرم فعليه جزاؤه لأن جزاء صيد الحرم مبني على الاحتياط، ولأنه إذا اجتمع المعنى الموجب للخطر، والموجب للإباحة في شيء واحد يغلب الموجب للخطر لقوله – صلى الله عليه وسلم – «ما اجتمع الحلال

والحرام في شيء إلا غلب الحرام الحلال» فلا يحل تناول هذا الصيد لهذا المعنى أيضا.

[al-Mabsūt li al-Sarakhsī, 4: 99]

(وعنه) في الرجل يرسل كلبه فيذهب معه كلب آخر غير معلم فيرد عليه الصيد ويأخذ الصياد معه قال: لا يؤكل، وبه نأخذ لقوله – صلى الله عليه وسلم -: «لعدي بن حاتم: – رضي الله تعالى عنه – وإن شارك كلبك كلب آخر فلا تأكل، فإنك إنما سميت على كلبك، ولم تسم على كلب غيرك» ولأن إرسال الكلب من شرائطه الحل، وانعدامه يوجب الحرمة، والصيد صار مأخوذا بالكلبين، والأصل أنه متى اجتمع موجب الحل، وموجب الحرمة يغلب الموجب للحرمة لقوله – صلى الله عليه وسلم -: «ما اجتمع الحلال والحرام في شيء إلا غلب الحرام الحلال» .

[al-Mabsūt li al-Sarakhsī, 11: 224]

قال – رحمه الله -: (ويقبل قول الكافر في الحل والحرمة)، وهذا سهو؛ ولأن الحل والحرمة من الديانات، ولا يقبل قول الكافر في الديانات، وإنما يقبل قوله في المعاملات خاصة للضرورة؛ ولأن خبره صحيح لصدوره عن عقل ودين يعتقد فيه حرمة الكذب، والحاجة ماسة إلى قبول قوله لكثرة وقوع المعاملات، ولا يقبل في الديانات لعدم الحاجة إلا إذا كان قبوله في المعاملات يتضمن قبوله في الديانات فحينئذ تدخل الديانات في ضمن المعاملات فيقبل قوله فيها ضرورة، وكم من شيء يصح ضمنا، وإن لم يصح قصدا ألا ترى أن بيع الشرب وحده لا يجوز، وتبعا للأرض يجوز فكذا هنا يدخل حتى إذا كان له خادم أو أجير مجوسي فأرسله ليشتري له لحما فقال اشتريته من يهودي أو نصراني أو مسلم وسعه أكله، وإن قال اشتريته من مجوسي لا يسعه أكله؛ لأنه لما قبل في حق الشراء منه لزمه قبوله في حق الحل والحرمة ضرورة لما ذكرنا، وإن كان لا يقبل قوله فيه قصدا بأن قال هذا حلال، وهذا حرام.

[Tabīn al-Haqā`iq, 7: 27, Dār al-Kutub al-`Ilmiyyah; al-Bahr al-Rā`iq, 8: 343, Rashīdiyyah; Radd al-Muhtār alā al-Durr-Mukhtār, 6: 344-5, H.M. Saeed]

قوله: ” لبقائه ” أي اللحم على الحرمة أي التي هي الأصل إذ حل الأكل متوقف على تحقق الذكاة اشرعية وبتعارض الخبرين لم يتحقق الحل فبقيت الذبيحة على الحرمة

[Hāshiyat al-Tahtāwī `alā marāqī al-Falāh Sharh Nūr al-īdhāh, p. 21, Qadīmī]

So as you can see, even Mufti Ebrahim Desai was not able to give a clear cut answer due to the technicalities.
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#6 [Permalink] Posted on 24th February 2015 13:48

I think that we need to explore a few things:

  1. Possible contamination with Pork
  2. Possible contamination with Non-Dabiha or disagreed upon sources such as E120 (Maliki Madhab 1 & Maliki Madhab 2)
  3. Is there a real possibility of contamination or someone's wild and vivid imagination?

 

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#7 [Permalink] Posted on 24th February 2015 13:59
Muadh_Khan wrote:
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Also the chances (if any) of the possibilities of contamination between dry or wet foods (see following fatwa to come in next post). As they will both hold different rulings. As I understand it, touching two dry foods can't really contaminate one an another, can they? even for slightly wet food?
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#8 [Permalink] Posted on 24th February 2015 14:03
From: Abu Mohammed
Date: Tue, 4 Sep 2012 18:35:23 +0000
To: Majlisul Ulama South Africa
Subject: Halal meat contamination

AsSalaamu Alaykum.

I come across this on many websites and would like to understand more with regards to contamination.

Halal food certifiers sites say; "Any unlawful meat should not contaminate Halal meat. Separate knives, equipment and utensils should be used for Halal meat."

I kind of understand the issue, but how about the utensils if they were used to slaughter a non halal cow?

Because as I understand, the Hanbali Fiqh have a different approach.

Also the issue of transporting the meat in the same vehicles or different ones.

Here in the UK, we have certain fast food outlets whose meat is certified as halal and seems to be correct as per their methods and rules.

As I follow the Hanafi school I would appreciate it if you could provide any references for the above statement as it is causing major confusion.

"WHAT ARE THE HANAFI REFERENCES TO SAY THAT HALAL MEAT THAT IS EVEN SLIGHTLY CONTAMINATED BY TOUCH, BECOMES HARAM"

Would it be correct to use the example of water and the things that make water Haram if contaminated, considering the fact that meat is not water but can be wet.

Jazakallahu khair.

Abu Mohammed

Sent from my HTC


REPLY


From: mujlisul.ulama@gmail.com [mujlisul.ulama@gmail.com]
Sent: 07 September 2012 14:14
To: Abu Mohammed
Subject: Re: Halal meat contamination


ASSALAMU ALAIKUM

21 Shawwaal 1433 (7 September 2012)

Abu Mohammed

Your e-mail dated 4 September 2012 refers.

Meat products sold by non-Muslims are haraam. All organizations certifying meat processed by kuffaar are in fact halaalizing carrion. They do so for the sake of the money.

If haraam meat touches halaal meat, the latter does not become haraam. It has to be washed. The analogy of water becoming contaminated is incorrect.

Was-salaam

A.S. Desai

For

Mujlisul Ulama of S.A.



So the conclusion here is clear...If haraam meat touches halaal meat, the latter does not become haraam.
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#9 [Permalink] Posted on 24th February 2015 14:42
what if there is some water in a bucket and a piece of pork falls into it. would the water become impure now?
touching and getting dipped deeply is different. but..
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#10 [Permalink] Posted on 24th February 2015 14:46
muslim11 wrote:
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I would assume that since the water is little in amount, then the water becomes impure, but if the same water was then put back into the sea, the impurities no longer remain, Allahu Alum.

This is why we need Ulama to answer such questions :)
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#11 [Permalink] Posted on 24th February 2015 14:57
@ ^^ yes that would become running water... but in the bucket.. okay I shall ask Insha Allah
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#12 [Permalink] Posted on 24th February 2015 15:00
muslim11 wrote:
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fiqhlessons.blogspot.co.uk/2004/11/five-kinds-of-water.html
Quote:
Filthy (najis) water.

This water is not used for wudu', ghusl, washing najaasah or human drinking. Water becomes najis in two ways:
by direct contact with najaasah if the water is little. Water is considered little if it is either less than approx. 7 meters across or it is not flowing. Water is considered flowing if it can carry a straw away.

It is important to note that:
water that is little does not become najis unless one is sure that najaasah came in direct contact with it. Sureness is not achieved unless one is informed by a trustworthy muslim or sees it by ones own eyes. One does not have to ask anyone about the state of the water one wants to use.
Note that if a dog, wildcat or beast of pray drink from water that is little, it becomes najis. Any contact with a pig makes water najis if it is little. The details of what is considered najis has been mentioned in detail elsewhere.
by contact with najaasah so that the water changes in either color, smell or taste - even if it is flowing or in a large quantity.
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#13 [Permalink] Posted on 24th February 2015 15:43

So can we make some reasonable conclusions from the Fatawa posted above:

  1. Halal meat DOES NOT become Haram due to coming in contact with Haram meat
  2. Water does become Najis (impure) by coming in contact with Najis (impure) objects but this contact has to be certain and not assumed and a person can chose NOT to ask about the matter and assume that no contact has occurred

I do not get this Fatwa:

Mufti Yusuf Mullan wrote:
However, since vegetarian and cheese pizzas are cooked in the same ovens as pizzas with pork and other haram toppings, avoiding even these would be strongly recommended. It is highly possible for the grease from the pork etc. to accumulate on the ceiling of the oven and then drip down onto the vegetarian pizza, thus contaminating it.

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#14 [Permalink] Posted on 24th February 2015 15:57
Muadh_Khan wrote:
View original post

From what I understood and the reason why I highlighted it was because of the chances of this NOT happening. Mufti Mullan is talking about the possibility of residue dropping from the top, but this would only be possible if the oven is never cleaned

Since the other Fatwa states:
Quote:
Answer
Assalamu’alaikum w.w.
The following will suffice.

You only need to clean surfaces which will come into direct contact with food, e.g. grill.

For this, turn the grill on to full heat until the grease melts, the grill meshing becomes dry and no signs of fat remain. This will render the grill Taahir. (Paak/Pure).

Wallahu A’alam
————————————–
(Mufti) Abdullah Patel


Again, from this I understand that the only way it can be contaminated is if the food touched the grills, which it doesn't unless placed on the grill without a tray or something. Like a barbecue or something similar.

Allahu Alum
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#15 [Permalink] Posted on 19th August 2016 19:32
Assalamu'alaikum everyone,

I am a baker and have a small home business at home. I would like to purchase a bigger oven for my business but it is a 2nd hand oven and I have been told that it was used to bake pork before.

As such, I would like to know if the oven will be suitable to use for my baking once I wash, clean and throughly wipe up the oven ?

Or am I not allowed to use the oven? I am really looking to purchase this oven as it is too expensive for me to purchase it first hand. But I do not want to take risks as I am baking for other muslims as well.. Thank you for clarifying...
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