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#1 [Permalink] Posted on 1st September 2014 10:21

(salaam)

I accidentely met with an HMC inspector a couple of days ago. Alhumdulillah, he was at a takeaway for an unexpected inspection.

As i learnt he was an ispector, I metioned to him about the other products sold in the shops that are not labelled by HMC but people would blindly bye it because of the certificate. (obviously, this is down to the people themselves to check) and also metioned differences of opinion on seafood etc. As some HMC outlets serve seafood that is Halal in one school but hram in another. (complicated issue). I mentioned that I was Hanafi and don't eat squid, but Maalikis do and a particular HMC certified place was selling it. There needs to be a better guide because the general public wont do their homework.

Anyways, since they only certifiy meat and poultry, he said that they dig deeper once they are on site and check the ingredients of every item to make sure every thing really is halal. He also mentioned that they do this with the Muslim Shops as there are many non-Muslim HMC certified places too.

 

The conversation then continued and he mentioned that he goes as far as checking up on the cheese to see if it contained Rennet in the ingredients because it was Haram according to him. 

InshaAllah, I'll post the verdicts from the Hanafi Scholars as well as Salafi Scholars. (Both agreeing on the matter)

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#2 [Permalink] Posted on 1st September 2014 10:26
Animal rennet Halaal?

Question sent: 2003-08-31
From: Question ID: #20
Could you please tell me if Whey is derived from animal? Is is Haram? I have noticed that any products with Whey does not say "suitable for Vegetarians". What about cheeses? I have heard that most cheeses are from Rennet. Could you please explain what that is and tell me which cheeses I should avoid? Especially French cheeses like camembert, goat cheese...
Answer

Answered: 2003-08-31

Read the following article carefully taken from the Muslim Food Guide by Mufti Yusuf Sacha and Please be advised that this is the view according to the Hanaafi Madh-hab:

Rennet is an enzyme used in the food industry for the preparation of cheese by curdling milk. Rennet extracted from the stomach of a calf or animal whose meat is Halaal (lawful) after slaughtering in accordance with Islamic Thabh is unanimously Halaal (permissible) for consumption. If the above mentioned animals were not slaughtered in accordance with Islamic law then the Honourable Saahibayn of the Hanafi Legal School, Imam Abu Yusuf and Imam Muhammad, hold the view that the rennet itself is Halaal but its consumption would be Haraam (unlawful) because of its contamination with impure moisture etc. found in the stomach of the animal. According to them, rennet is fluid or viscous [running] and because of the penetration and saturation of impure moisture it would be impossible to purify it, therefore such rennet would remain Haraam.

However, Imaam Abu Hanifah does not regard the moisture found in the stomach of the above mentioned animals to be impure. Therefore the rennet obtained from them is Halaal, according to him.

The permissibility of rennet, therefore, is not really dependent on the slaughterer being Muslim or non-Muslim but upon whether there is life in rennet or not, and whether it absorbs the impurities found in the stomach of a newly born slaughtered calf. This is the outcome of the difference between Imaam Abu Hanifah and his two students, the Saahibayn,

Because of this difference in the opinion of the school, the Fatwa (legal opinion) allows a person to consume rennet (in the form of cheese etc.). Whilst Taqwa (piety) desires abstinence.

Allah Knows Best.

Further clarification and authentification.

1) In a commentary of the hadith text, Mishqatul Masaabeeh, by the famous Hanafi, scholar, Ali Qaari, Mirqaat, volume 8, page 193, is mentioned in the Kitaabul A’timah, Fasl Thaani.

Ibn Umar, radhiallahu anhu, narrates that our Rasul, sallallahu alayhi wasallam, was given a piece of Jubnah [Cheese] in Tabuk; he called for a knife, praying the tasmiyya he cut it [and ate it] narrated by Abu Dawud.

In the commentary, is mentioned; in this is proof of the purity of anfahah, because if it was impure then the cheese itself would be impure for it cannot be made without it [anfahah].

Again In this commentary in volume 2, page 79/80 is mentioned, in Bab Mash alal Khufayn, Fasl Awwal.

Tabraani narrates with a good sanad, although Ghareeb, that in one of the ghazawah, cheese was brought to Nabi sallallahu alayhi wasallam; He asked where it was made? Someone replied in Persia or in the lands of the Majus. Place the knife on it [cut it] and eat it. Someone said; O Rasulullah, we fear it may be carrion [Maitah]. He replied pray the tasmiyyah and eat it. Tirmidhi has mentioned a hadith wherein the Prophet was given a pair of leather socks and he wore them, without knowing whether they were pure or not. In the hadith of Salmaan, our Rasul was questioned regarding Jubn [cheese], Simn [clarifed butter] and Faraa’e [leather] together with the fact that it was taken from the lands of the Majus. It was mentioned to Umar regarding Jubn [cheese] and said to him that the rennet of dead animals are put in it [cheese]. He replied pray the tasmiyyah and eat it. Imam Ahmad mentions that this is the most sound hadith regarding cheese manufactured by Majus.

From the above commentaries it is evident that if rennet is derived from an animal that is permissible to eat, despite how it is slaughtered, it is Halaal to eat such cheese, despite the method used in the making of cheese.The rennet formed by the milk drunk by a newly born calf, which is then slaughtered and taken from its stomach is somewhat solid and has the effect of solidifying liquid milk and transforming it into cheese. Its permissibility though seemingly irrational because what is within the womb and stomach is under the law of impurity but the permissibility of cheese is established by Nass [Sharii proof] and agreed, therefore rennet is pure and permissible Fatwa Mazahir Ulum Volume 1 page 110.

2) Mufti Taqi’ Uthmaani, mentions that the ruling of Hadhraat Saahibayn is more cautious whilst that of Imaam Abu Hanifah is extensive or accommodating. If a pious person refrains it is better, whilst if a person is consuming cheese do not stop him. However, the rennet derived from the stomach of a pig is Haraam and Impure, provided its original property and chemical makeup does not undergo any drastic change.

Vegetarian or synthetic rennet, if nothing impure has been added to it will be Halaal. The cheese sold in supermarkets and shops, if it is vegetarian or derived from animals slaughtered Islamically is permissible to consume. On the other hand if it is pig rennet used in the cheese, without transformation then this is not permissible. Lastly, the rennet in cheese from animals other than pig is permissible, but abstention is desirable.

Bahr al-Raa’iq Volume 1 page 112/3

Register of the Fatawa Darul Ulum Karachi Number 175 23A Dated 11/3/ 1415

We quoted the actual Fatwa (legal verdict) regarding rennet used in cheese, by Mufti Nizamuddin Sahab in the MFG, and the following points from it are noteworthy.

3) 3.1) According to Imaam Abu Hanifah the rennet of Halaal (permissible) animals which have not been slaughtered according to Islamic law is Ja’iz (permissible for consumption). Thus the animal which has been slaughtered by a non-Muslim is also one which has not been slaughtered according to Islamic law and therefore the rennet extracted from such an animal is Ja’iz.

The reason being that the lawfulness of rennet does not depend upon the slaughterer being a Muslim or non-Muslim, in fact it depends upon whether there is life in it or not. If there is no life in rennet then death cannot occur because life and death are opposites. The circulation of blood in an organ is the cause of life. No blood flows through rennet therefore rennet is not a living organism. To consume and use rennet is permissible. The Honourable Saahibayn’s difference in opinion in this is connected to the fact that rennet is situated in close proximity to impure substances contained in the stomach of the animal irrespective of whether the rennet from the animal was extracted and slaughtered by a Muslim or a non-Muslim.

3.2) If it is known with certainty that rennet is obtained from liquid substance extracted from pigs then such rennet is absolutely Haraam.

3.3) The rennet obtained from an animal slaughtered by a non-Muslim or Muslim in accordance with Islamic law or contrary to it, is in all cases Ja’iz as long as the animal in question is not a pig. This is the opinion of Imaam Abu Hanifah. According to the Saahibayn it is Impure.

3.4) Rennet extracted from plants is Halaal.

What is Whey?

During cheese making, a coagulum is formed by clotting milk with rennet. When the coagulum is cut, a watery liquid known as whey is released and drained off leaving the curd to be salted and further processed into cheese. Whey contains water, fat, protein, lactose, minerals and lactic acid. Cream, butter, cheese, drinks, syrups and powder are some of the products made from whey. Whey will come under the same rule as rennet because it is a by-product which appears during the process of cheese making.
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#3 [Permalink] Posted on 1st September 2014 10:31
Above is courtesy of GMWA Foodguide, sorry couldn't copy link to source.
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#4 [Permalink] Posted on 1st September 2014 10:35
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#5 [Permalink] Posted on 1st September 2014 10:37
And as mentioned, here is the Salafi response islamqa.info/en/2841

Question
Is the cheese halaal if it is made from enzymes taken from haraam meat (not slaughtered according to shariah) as the enzymes still live beyond the animal's life time i.e the enzyme does not die when the animal is killed.


Answer
Praise be to Allaah.

Before answering this question, it is important to know what rennet is.

Al-Fayroozabaadi said in al-Qaamoos al-Muheet (p. 313), under the definition of na fa ha: al-infahah and al-minfahah and al-binfahah all refer to something yellow that is extracted from the stomachs of suckling goat kids.

Infahah (rennet) was also defined in al-Mawsoo'ah al-Fiqhiyyah as follows: "It is a yellowish-white substance ([in a skin vessel] - this phrase appears not to fit here) that is extracted from the stomachs of suckling kids or lambs. When a little of this substance is added to milk, it curdles and becomes cheese. In some Arabic-speaking regions, people call this rennet mujabbinah (cheese-maker), and the stomach (from which the rennet is taken) is called kursh if the animal grazes on grass.

The Islamic ruling concerning rennet is that if it is taken from an animal that has been slaughtered according to sharee'ah, then it is pure (taahir) and can be eaten. This is according to the Hanafis, Maalikis, Shaafa'is and Hanbalis.

As regards eating rennet taken from an animal that dies naturally, or that was not slaughtered in accordance with sharee'ah, according to the apparent meaning of the opinions reported from the majority of scholars among the Maalikis, Shaafa'is and Hanbalis have said, it is impure (naajis) and should not be eaten. They base this ruling on the aayah (interpretation of the meaning): "Forbidden to you for food) are: al-maytatah (dead animals - cattle-beast not slaughtered)…" [al-Maa;idah 5:3] - the rennet becomes impure by virtue of the animal's death, and it is not possible to remove that impurity from it. [next phrase is unclear]

Imaam al-Nawawi said in al-Majmoo' (9/68): "The ummah is agreed that it is permissible to eat cheese so long as it is not mixed with anything impure, such as adding rennet from a source that is not halaal because it was not slaughtered according to sharee'ah. This ijmaa' (scholarly consensus) is the evidence for its permissibility."

The second view, which is that of Abu Haneefah and is one of two opinions narrated from Imaam Ahmad, is that rennet from dead animals or animals that were not slaughtered according to sharee'ah is still taahir (pure). This is the opinion which Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah thought most correct in al-Fataawaa (21/102), where he said: "It is more likely that their (the Zoroastrians') cheese is halaal, and that the rennet and milk of dead animals is taahir (pure)." Elsewhere in al-Fataawaa (35/154) he said: "With regard to the cheese made with their (some of the kaafir Baatini groups') rennet, there are two well-known scholarly opinions, as is the case with the rennet from animals slaughtered by the Zoroastrians and Christians, and rennet from dead animals, of whom it is said that they do not slaughter their animals properly. The schools of Abu Haneefah and Ahmad, according to the other of his two opinions, say that this cheese is halaal, because the rennet taken from dead animals is taahir (pure), according to this view, and because the (enzymes in) rennet do not die when the animal dies (so, the concept "impure containers don't cause the contents of the container to become impure by contact" ) applies. The schools of Maalik, al-Shaafa'i and Ahmad, according to the other of his two opinions, state that this cheese is naajis (impure), because the rennet is impure according to this view, as they see the milk and rennet of dead animals as impure. In cases where meat is classified as impure because it is not slaughtered properly, the meat is regarded as being the same as dead meat. Both opinions are based on reports narrated from the Sahaabah. The first group states that the Sahaabah used to eat the cheese of the Zoroastrians, while the second group state that the Sahaabah used to eat what they thought was the cheese of the Christians. With regard to this issue, the follower (ordinary Muslim) must follow an 'aalim who advises him to follow either of these two opinions.

Islam Q&A
Sheikh Muhammed Salih Al-Munajjid
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#6 [Permalink] Posted on 1st September 2014 18:28
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#7 [Permalink] Posted on 1st September 2014 20:04
Assalamu Alaikum

I heard Mufti Abdullah Nana say that according to some Mufti's the rennet from animals slaughtered by non Muslims is NO LONGER permissible from consumption. This is not because they are not following Imam Abu Hanifa's view of permissibility, but due to the modern methods of obtaining the rennet and contamination issues. Not sure how widespread this view is.
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#8 [Permalink] Posted on 1st September 2014 20:08
Concerned wrote:
View original post

MashaAllah, interesting to know. There are many rulings that are changed as and when technical issues are clarified with the aid of science.

It would be greatly appreciated if you could pass on the relevant information and inshaAllah we can pass it onto the Ulama such as Mufti Sacha as he's a specialist.

جزاك الله خيرا
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#9 [Permalink] Posted on 1st September 2014 20:38
Rennet will be Halaal only if it is from a Halaal slaughtered animal. (Ahsanul Fataawa vol.8 pg.117)

and Allah Ta'ala Knows Best

Mufti Ebrahim Desai


Also, Maulana A.S. Desai wrote a booklet on the halaal status of cheese, stating that Infahah is, in fact, not rennet.
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#10 [Permalink] Posted on 2nd September 2014 22:42
Concerned wrote:
View original post

samah wrote:
View original post

Please don't jump at me for my comments below and see where I am coming from.

During Ramadhan I heard a pre recodorded lecture by Mufti Abdur Rahman ibn Yusuf on fasting. In this lecture, he mentioned that that there was a particular ruling (please forgive me as I can't remember it) which stated that the fast would break as it was understood that so and so enters the stomach, hence the fast would break. However, as technology has advanced we have learnt that so and so (I'm really sorry I can't remember the term) does not break the fast because nothing enters the stomach. (InshaAllah, If I can recall the name, I will post it)

So from here, I/We understand how a ruling can be changed on the basis of "MEDICAL SCIENTIFIC ADVANCES" Alhumdulillah.

But, Quran and Sunnah will never be taken over no matter how much MEDICAL SCIENCE advances! Example, Toothbrush and Toothpaste. So many medical advances, yet the Miswak is still the way forward. Here we follow the Sunnah.

With regards to Mufti AS Desai (ha), I wont say much because SANHA is an open target for him and he can't stand them and declares almost everything Haram. I haven't gone into the article fully yet as its a little awkward to read in its current layout on the mobile.

The main point I'm trying to put forward is that Allah would not allow our beloved (saw) to consume Haram! If the future was to make the cheese he ate as Haram, then He (saw) would never had eaten it. (Yes I know Mufti Desai is saying that Rennet is not that what is mentioned in the Hadith as infaha. So from my point [until i read the whole article] I don't see how, if it was Haram, that the Prophet (saw) would've consumed it as the Hadith clearly proves [regardless of the animal being zabiha or not]).

Now to my next point and going off topic but with the same logic (I seriously request everyone not to derail this thread or go off topic)

Medical Sciences have advanced so much that we are able to change old rulings and replace them with new research, therefore, using the same logic, why is smoking still not classified as Haram. (I appreciate that this is decreed by Allah and I don't want to debate it, I'm just putting my thoughts forward as per this thread www.muftisays.com/forums/people-s-say/5159/shisha-huka-%2...)

I have doubts on the findings based on the Hadith and the medical research. I would still accept that which the Prophet (saw) did and not follow science. It is Science that agrees with the Deen, Deen doesn't agree with Science.

And Allah knows best.

I'm sure I'm missing some vital points and InshaAllah, Allah will make things a lot clearer for us all. Therefore, for the time being, I still accept the Fatwa of Mufti Yusuf Sacha, Mufti Taqi Usmani, Ibn Taymiyyah, Ahmad ibn Hanbal and Imam al-Adham Imam Abu Hanifa.
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#11 [Permalink] Posted on 3rd September 2014 00:37
What Mufti Abdullah Nana mentioned is new to me as well and like I said I do not know how widespread that view is or how much research has been done etc..

The points you raised does not apply to this situation, because from what I understand he was referring to the current method used to obtain the rennet, and this current method would not have prevalent in the past. So if the traditional method was still being employed then there would be no issue with the rennet being permissible.
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#12 [Permalink] Posted on 3rd September 2014 14:25
Managed to go through the PDF of Mufti AS Desai. Alhumdulillah, what I mentioned about the hadith and then doing qiyaas to make something Haram is incorrect. He clearly states that any qiyaas going contrary to the Hadith is to be rejected. (Khilaaf-e-Qiyaas)

However, as I mentioned earlier, Mufti Saab is saying that infaha is NOT Rennet! and these two substances have been incorrectly termed as the same by the dictionaries. Very interesting as per his definition

Khair, I'll post further rulings by other Ulama including that of the Shafi' School.

It is still advisable to read the definition and detailed answer given by Mufti AS Desai.

Allahu Alum :)

Maybe someone could pass on this understanding to the likes of Mufti Sacha for further clarification.
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#13 [Permalink] Posted on 3rd September 2014 14:26
Rennet in Cheese

Question:

Selam Aleykum wa rahmetullahi wa barakatuh,

Is cheese that contains animal rennet halal? And if its haram, is it for the Muslims in the West possible to follow the Opinion of another Madhab who thinks it is halal, because it is a alternative Food to all the haram food that is present?


Answer:

Wa alaykum salam wa rahmatuLlahi wa barakatuHu,

Rennet comes from the stomach of cud-chewing animals, like sheep or cows, and is frequently used in cheese production. In America, some companies use rennet from non-animal sources to produce the vast majority of their cheeses. Kraft Cheese, for example, started making most of their cheeses with such rennet. The cheese manufacturer will usually know the rennet’s origin, and should be contacted for further details.

Rennet’s purity is contingent on specific conditions. Imam Nawawi stated,

وأما الإنفحة فإن أخذت من السخلة بعد موتها أو بعد أكلها غير اللبن فنجسة بلا خلاف وإن أخذت من السخلة المذبوحة قبل أن يأكل غير اللبن فوجهان الصحيح الذي قطع به كثيرون طهارتها

“Regarding rennet, when it is taken from a lamb after it dies or after having eaten something besides milk, then it is impure without any difference of opinion. And when it is taken from a slaughtered lamb before it has eaten something besides milk, then there are two opinions. In the relied-upon opinion, which the majority authoritatively related, it is pure.” (Rawdat al-Talibin 1/16-17; also see al-Sharh al-Kabir 1/39)

Therefore, the Shafi’i Madhhab’s ruling is that pure rennet comes exclusively from a slaughtered, solely suckling lamb. This is on account of the tarjih at the hands of Shaykhayn, Imam Nawawi and Imam Rafi’i. In Sharh al-Muhadhdhab 2/570, this is again stated.

When considering cheese, taking into account the origin of its rennet, Sh. Abd al-Hamid al-Sharwani mentioned,

لأن أصله وهو اللبن طاهر وشك تنجسه والأصل عدمه

“Because its origin, milk, is pure; and there is only doubt that it may be impure. Then, the default ruling is the absence of it [impurity].” (Hashiyat Tuhfat al-Muhtaj 1/308)

Also, Sh. Zayn al-Din al-Malibari mentioned,

قاعدة مهمة وهي أن ما أصله الطهارة وغلب على الظن تنجسه لغلبة النجاسة في مثله فيه قولان بقولي الأصل والظاهر أو الغالب أرجحهما أنه طاهر عملا بالأصل المتيقن…

“A very important principle is the default ruling that a thing is pure. And when overwhelmed by suspicion, due to its kind generally being impure, there are two opinions. The relied-upon is that it is pure; considering its source, of which one is certain…” (I’anat al-Talibin 1/179)

Imam Ramli mentioned,

نعم يعفى عن الجبن المعمول بالإنفحة من حيوان تغذى بغير اللبن لعموم البلوى به في هذا الزمان كما أفتى به الوالد رحمه الله تعالى إذ من القواعد أن المشقة تجلب التيسير وأن الأمر إذا ضاق اتسع وصرح الأئمة بالعفو عن النجاسة في مسائل كثيرة المشقة فيها أخف من هذه المشقة

“In fact, one is excused [ma’fu anhu] from cheese made with rennet from an animal that has eaten something besides milk. This is due to the public affliction [‘umum al-balwa] happening currently. Accordingly, my father [i.e. Shihab Ramli] issued a fatwa on it, as it is from the principles [qawaid fiqhiyyah] that difficulty brings about ease, and when a matter becomes constricted, it widens. Authorities have clearly excused impurities in many situations, on account of difficulty in matters much less burdensome than this.” (Nihayat al-Muhtaj 1/245)

The default ruling of cheese is that it is pure, like what Sh. Shatta al-Bakri mentioned,

وجبن شامي فهو طاهر عملا بالأصل

“And Roman Cheese, it is pure considering its default ruling.” (Hashiyat I’anat al-Talibin 1/180) [Roman Cheese was known to be made with questionable rennet. It is also noted that Roman Cheese was served to the Prophet Muhammad and he ate it without questioning its origin. (I’anat al-Talibin 1/180; Tuhfat al-Muhtaj 1/308)]

In our times, it is often easy to determine the source of rennet. When it is not printed on the packaging, a mere phone call or e-mail can inform one regarding its origin. Moreover, many companies are producing cheese with non-animal rennet; therefore, viable alternatives exist. That is not to say that ‘umum al-balwa does not feature here. Rather, out of prudency one should seek the available alternatives. Rennet’s source is milk. Its default ruling is pure. And mere doubt does not make it impure.

And Allah knows best.

Shafiifiqh.com Fatwa Dept.
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#14 [Permalink] Posted on 3rd September 2014 14:28
Question
Assalamualaikum,

In the US, there is a lot of debate about the permissibility of animal rennet produced cheeses. A lot of dietary products that Muslims come across are only doubtful due to the cheese issue. Milk, having liquid consistency, is coagulated using an enzyme called rennet. Rennet can be extracted from microbial as well as animal sources. There is open consensus about the permissibility of the microbial rennet. The rennet extracted from the intestinal tract of animals remains open to debate. Obviously, the rennet from animals slaughtered with tasmiyyah will be permissible, but what about the rennet from at once halal, but murdaar animals and from porcine sources? Why can't a consensus be reached upon the latter issue? Please read the content on this website and reply with your response on the issue:
muslimmatters.org/2007/07/09/of-mice-and-men-the-cheese-f... . This document has been prepared by a traditional student of 'ilm. Jazakallah!

Wassalaamualaikum.
Answer
In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful
Assalaamu `alaykum waRahmatullahi Wabarakatoh
Allah Ta’ala has created mankind and chose the religion of Islam for them. Islam, unlike the other religions, is a complete way of life. It does not constitute only of Salah, Sawm, Zakah, and Hajj, but involves every aspect of one’s life. To such an extent, that even the food one consume must also be according to Shariah. One cannot eat all which his heart desires, instead he is ordered to eat only that which is pure and lawful.
Allah Ta’ala says,
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا لَا تُحَرِّمُوا طَيِّبَاتِ مَا أَحَلَّ اللَّهُ لَكُمْ وَلَا تَعْتَدُوا إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يُحِبُّ الْمُعْتَدِينَ . وَكُلُوا مِمَّا رَزَقَكُمُ اللَّهُ حَلَالًا طَيِّبًا وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ الَّذِي أَنْتُمْ بِهِ مُؤْمِنُونَ (المائدة)
O you who believe, do not hold as unlawful the good things Allah has made lawful for you, and do not transgress. Verily Allah does not like the transgressors. And eat from what Allah has provided you as good and lawful, and fear Allah in whom you believe
(al-Maa’idah 87-88)

It is in the spirit of pursing halal, the issue of cheese is being researched and it particular at rennet as it is the key ingredient of cheese.

Rennet
Rennet is a natural complex of enzymes produced in the lining membrane of the fourth stomach of mammals. The active enzyme in rennet is rennin (chymosin). There are other important enzymes as well, e.g. pepsin or lipase.

The role of chymosin is to curdle the milk in the stomach, which is essential for young animals so that milk does not just follow through without it gaining the necessary proteins. Chymosin secretion is at maximum during the first few days after the birth and decreases thereafter. For this reason, the younger the animal the stronger the enzymes will be.

After people discovered the effect rennet had upon milk, they began drying and cleaning the stomachs of young calves and extracting the rennet from it. The rennet would be added in milk to turn it into curd and whey.

Rennet can also be derived from non-animal sources. In the past people also used rennet from fig leaves, melon, wild thistle and safflower for cheese making. The most widely used non-animal rennet is by fermenting a fungus called Mucor miehei.
In today’s time, genetically engineered rennet has also become common in cheese making.

The method of making cheese
First the milk is heated to destroy any possible harmful bacteria and then cooled. The milk is then acidified by a starter culture of lactic acid bacteria added with rennet to curdle the milk. Some cheeses are curdled only by acidity but most use rennet. After curdling, the curds are removed, cut and drained. Thereafter it is matured and processed into the various different cheeses.

Shar’ee Ruling for animal rennet
The practice of making cheese is very ancient and was done well before the time of Rasulullah (Sallalahu Alaihi Wasallam). Cheese was made for the reason that it was a means of preserving food which could last for a long period of time. Rasulullah (Sallalahu Alaihi Wasallam) himself was presented cheese made by the Persians (the Magians) which he ate.

The Shar’ee ruling of rennet is that if it is derived from an unlawful animal, then the rennet will be unlawful. Thus rennet extracted from pigs and other non-lawful animals will not be lawful to consume.

If the animal is lawful and slaughtered in accordance to Shariah, then the rennet will be lawful to consume.

As for rennet extracted from lawful animals that are not slaughtered in accordance to Shariah, there is a difference of opinion between Imam Abu Hanifa and his two students, Imam Abu Yusuf and Imam Muhammad. All three Jurists agree that rennet itself is pure. However, Imam Abu Yusuf and Imam Muhammad state the rennet is in contact with the liquids of the stomach which become impure upon death of the animal if not slaughter in accordance to Shariah. Therefore, if the rennet is in solid from, it is possible to purify is by washing it. If it is liquid form, it is not possible to purify it and will be impure. Imam Abu Hanifa states that the liquids of the stomach do not become impure upon the death of the animal, therefore the rennet will be pure regardless if its slaughter in accordance to Shariah or not.

The ruling in Hanafi Fiqh is giving upon the view of Imam Abu Hanifa, therefore if the rennet is extracted from lawful animals it is lawful to consume, regardless if it is slaughtered in accordance to Shariah or not.
- عن ابن عباس قال أتى النبى صلى الله عليه وسلم بجبنة فى غزاة فقال أين صنعت هذه فقالوا بفارس ونحن نرى أنه يجعل فيها ميتة فقال اطعنوا فيها بالسكين واذكروا اسم الله وكلوا (مسند احمد)
- عن ابن عمر قال أتى النبى صلى الله عليه وسلم بجبنة فى تبوك فدعا بسكين فسمى وقطع (سنن ابى داود)
- قوله : كالشعر الخ والمنقار والمخلب وبيضة ضعيفة القشرة ولبن وإنفخة وهي ما يكون في معدة الجدي ونحوه الرضيع من أجزاء اللبن قبل أن يأكل قال في الفتح لا خلاف بن أصحابنا في ذلك وإنما الخلاف من حيث تنجسهما فقالا : نعم لمجاورتهما الغشاء النجس فإن كانت الأنفحة جامدة تطهر بالغسل وإلا تعذر تطهيرها كاللبن وقال أبو حنيفة ليستا بمتنجستين لأن الموت لا يحلهما (حاشية الطحطاوى على مراقى الفلاح ص 169 دار الكتب العلمية)
- ( وشعر الميتة ) غير الخنزير على المذهب ( وعظمها وعصبها ) على المشهور ( وحافرها وقرنها ) الخالية عن الدسومة وكذا كل ما لا تحله الحياة حتى الإنفحة واللبن على الراجح...قال ابن عابدين: ( قوله حتى الإنفحة ) بكسر الهمزة وقد تشدد الحاء وقد تكسر الفاء . والمنفحة والبنفحة : شيء واحد يستخرج من بطن الجدي الراضع أصفر فيعصر في صوفة فيغلظ كالجبن ، فإذا أكل الجدي فهو كرش ، وتفسير الجوهري الإنفحة بالكرش سهو قاموس بالحرف فافهم . ( قوله على الراجح ) أي الذي هو قول الإمام ، ولم أر من صرح بترجيحه ، ولعله أخذه من تقديم صاحب الملتقى له وتأخيره قولهما كما هو عادته فيما يرجحه (الدر المختار مع رد المحتار 1:206)
- وإنفحة الميتة ولبنها في ضرعها وقشر البيضة الخارجة والسخلة الساقطة من أمها وهي مبتلة طاهرة عند أبي حنيفة رحمه الله . كذا في محيط السرخسي (الفتاوى الهندية)


Sources:
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rennet
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cheese
arbl.cvmbs.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/digestion/stomac...
biology.clc.uc.edu/fankhauser/Cheese/Rennet/Rennet.html
www.vegsoc.org/info/cheese.html
Is cheese containing Animal Rennet Halal? by Mufti Zubair Butt (PDF) (no longer available.

And Allah knows best
Wassalam
Ml. Ehzaz Ajmeri,
Student Darul Iftaa
Checked and Approved by:
Mufti Ebrahim Desai
Darul Iftaa, Madrassah In'aamiyyah
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#15 [Permalink] Posted on 6th May 2015 05:17
As-Salaamu `Alaykum,

I recently read this article on Mufti Abu Hajira's website. Here's the highlight which appears to be new:

Mufti Abu Hajira on fatwa.ca wrote:

* Adendum : My coleague Mufti Khalil (may Allah increase his knowledge) has informed me that the modern procedure of rennet extraction is as follows : "Deep-frozen stomachs are milled and put into an enzyme-extracting solution. The crude rennet extract is then activated by adding acid; the enzymes in the stomach are produced in an inactive form and are activated by the stomach acid. The acid is then neutralized and the rennet extract is filtered in several stages and concentrated until reaching a typical potency of about 1:15,000; meaning 1 gram of extract can coagulate 15 kg (15 litres) of milk. "Rennet – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia", accessed 08 January 2014. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rennet.

In light of this new information, only the rennet from a ritually slaughtered zabiha animal will be halal. While this is the case, and should be clarified, the modern trend in industry is moving towards microbial enzymes. [emphasis added - samah]
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