You have contributed 20.0% of this topic
Taurine is named after the Latin taurus (a cognate of the Greek ταῦρος) which means bull or ox, as it was first isolated from ox bile in 1827 by German scientists Friedrich Tiedemann and Leopold Gmelin.
Today it no longer comes from any animals!
Synthetic taurine is obtained by the ammonolysis of isethionic acid (2-hydroxyethanesulfonic acid), which in turn is obtained from the reaction of ethylene oxide with aqueous sodium bisulfite. A direct approach involves the reaction of aziridine with sulfurous acid.
In 1993, about 5,000–6,000 tons of taurine were produced for commercial purposes: 50% for pet food and 50% in pharmaceutical applications. As of 2010, China alone has more than 40 manufacturers of taurine. Most of these enterprises employ the ethanolamine method to produce a total annual production of about 3,000 tons.
Taurine is produced by the Transsulfuration pathway which converts homocysteine into cystathionine. The cystathionine is then used by the Cystathionine gamma-lyase CTH, Cysteine dioxygenase CDO, and Cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase CSAD gene enzymes to produce hypotaurine and then taurine.
In the laboratory taurine can be produced by alkylation of ammonia with bromoethanesulfonate salts.
No, avoid them as per recommendations by the NHS, side effects include:
This cannot be undone and I am sure it will be greatly appreciated.