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What is Autism?

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#61 [Permalink] Posted on 23rd December 2018 16:47

muslim11 wrote:
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Ask any questions which you like, if we know we will inform you.

I am probably and most likely on the Autism specturm, do you think I am normal?

Autism is a spectrum which means that some people are highfunctional and some people are not. But people on the Autism spectrum havedifficulty with emotions and they generally express themselves plainly andwithout mincing their words. For most people it is rude but Autistic brains arevery binary and they see the world as black and white.

For most Non-Autistic people, it is very difficult conceptto understand and they see people on the Autistic spectrum as rude, discourteousetc.

A person on the Autism spectrum can have physical disabilities OR no physical disabilities whatsoever so it depends.

The main difference is in the brain and not physical body.


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#62 [Permalink] Posted on 24th December 2018 05:19
Muadh_Khan wrote:
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Quick question:

There are certain developmental disorders, such as Down syndrome, which severely limit a person's mental abilities, among other things. In some cases, a person suffering from such disorders, when they are no longer able to judge right from wrong, become exempt from following the shariah. Can autistic persons also fall in the category of people who are exempt from following the shariah?
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#63 [Permalink] Posted on 24th December 2018 10:29

abuzayd2k wrote:
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Depending upon the severity of the symptoms and personal circumstances, a person can be exempt. It differs on a case by case basis.



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#64 [Permalink] Posted on 18th December 2020 12:20
Getting to the basics of humor for people on the autism spectrum

ByJuliana Clark October 30, 2020


From an early age, autism spectrum disorder has played a significant role in Maja Watkins’ life. Not only is her older brother Zack on the spectrum, Watkins is a social and emotional learning specialist who works with children and adults diagnosed with ASD.

According to the National Institute for Mental Health, ASD is a developmental disorder that affects communication and behavior. It’s largely marked by difficulty in social communication or interaction and repetitive behaviors. Autism is considered a spectrum disorder because there is a high degree of variability among the individuals diagnosed.

Growing up, Watkins experienced a number of instances where her and her brother’s communication styles didn’t always align, especially in the area of humor.

“There was a time where I was pushing him on a swing, and I think, at one point, I said, ‘Ugh, I have to stop. My arm is gonna fall off.’ And a week later, I pushed him on the swing, and he’s like, ‘Stop! Your arm is gonna fall off.’ He took it so literally,” Watkins said.

Aside from communication, Watkins and her brother also have different tastes in humor. For example, Watkins loves sarcasm while her brother prefers physical comedy.

“My husband is a standup comedian and has really beautifully written jokes that are very thought out and make whole rooms full of people laugh. My brother often doesn’t laugh at those.”

But when he watches a video of Maja’s husband skateboarding and “actually falling down and actually breaking his arm … that made my brother laugh harder than anything. Because it was shocking and different, and it was, it was like it threw him off. And it was physical and it wasn’t this intricate sarcastic thing,” she said.

Ali Arena is a board-certified behavior analyst and speech pathologist, who works with a lot of clients on the spectrum. She thinks that this difficulty perceiving sarcasm is because many people on the spectrum aren’t aware of the background information required to understand that type of humor. Another reason is that they are interpreting the statement completely literally.

“Something like, ‘Oh, my bad.’ I had to really explain that to someone. Because they were like, ‘Well, what did you do that was bad?’” Arena said.

Clinical psychologist Jason McCormick said this misinterpretation is often related to people on the spectrum having difficulty with mental flexibility.

“Most jokes have, you know, a surprise element to them, but then you also [need] things [to] hang together. So, as an example, the joke, ‘How did the hipster burn his mouth?’ And then the answer, of course, is because, ‘He ate vegan pizza before it was cool.’ So we’ve all burned our mouths on eating pizza too fast, but the surprise is that cool refers to something other than temperature. It refers more to attitude, but then that second piece is how it all fits together. So you need surprise and then coherence,” McCormick said.

However, because there is a great deal of heterogeneity among people with ASD, McCormick cautioned that not everyone on the spectrum struggles with these specific functions.

“I don’t want to paint this as autism spectrum disorder, there’s no way you can ever have a good sense of humor. But aspects of executive function can make sense of humor kind of more elusive,” he added.

whyy.org/segments/getting-to-the-basics-of-humor-for-peop...
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#65 [Permalink] Posted on 19th December 2020 15:01
Just came across this thread. My 4yo just been officially diagnosed with autism last month. At the moment it's hard to tell if he has mild or severe but seems like mild. In terms of his Islamic obligations (once he is baligh) what is required from him and those with autism. He will be required to do salah when 7/12 or whenever he is ready.
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#66 [Permalink] Posted on 19th December 2020 15:05
mkdon101 wrote:
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In principle, an individual is Mukallaf i.e. accountable in terms of submission to the religion, if he possesses sufficient intellect which allows him to understand and affirm that which Almighty Allah has ordained in His Shari’ah.

askimam.org/public/question_detail/46272
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#67 [Permalink] Posted on 19th December 2020 15:28
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#68 [Permalink] Posted on 20th December 2020 07:42
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#69 [Permalink] Posted on 24th December 2020 09:52
Signs of Autism

Although every individual on the autism spectrum has different needs and displays different symptoms, there are signs that you can look out for if you think that you or someone you know might have autism.


Signs of autism in pre-school age children

Spoken language


Delayed speech development. You can assess their speech development by comparing it with other children of the same age. Speaking less than 50 words by the age of two or not speaking at all would be considered as delayed speech development

Frequent repetition of certain words or phrases

Monotonous or flat sounding speech
If a child can speak in sentences but prefers to communicate using single words or short phrases

Interacting with others

Not responding when their name is called

Rejecting cuddles initiated by their family members (although they might initiate cuddles themselves)

Having an unusually negative reaction when asked to do something

Being intolerant of people being in their personal space

Little or no interest in interacting with others (of their own age or otherwise)
Not enjoying activities such as birthday parties or play areas which are busy and noisy

Rarely using facial expressions or hand gestures when communicating

Avoiding eye contact

Behaviour

Repetitive movements such as flapping their hands, rocking, jumping up and down or flicking their fingers

Playing with toys in a repetitive way, such as placing toys in size order or colour groups rather than showing more creative play

Preferring to have a familiar routine and becoming upset if there is a change
Having a strong like or dislike for certain foods, this may be due to colour or texture as much as taste


Signs of autism in school age children

All of the symptoms listed above will also apply to school-age children, with some additions. Also, it is likely that sensory needs will become more apparent at this age. It may be that they become upset in noisy, echoic or very bright places, their methods of sensory stimulation (hand flapping, rocking etc) are more pronounced, they are becoming more particular about what foods they eat etc. At this age you might begin to notice an aptitude for certain things such as Maths, English or Art. A common misconception is that autism is a learning difficulty but this is not the case and people on the spectrum can be exceptionally bright.

Spoken language

Preferring to avoid using spoken language at all

A reluctance to form new sentences or expand their speech and sticking to pre-learned phrases

Difficulties in holding a two-way conversation and seeming to ‘talk at people’

Interacting with others

Taking what people say to them completely literally

Difficulties understanding sarcasm, metaphors, and figures of speech

Negative reactions, when asked to do something, may now be more obvious and challenging

Not being aware of other people’s personal space or being unusually intolerant of people coming into their personal space

Having few friends and/or a lack of desire to make friends

Seemingly unaware of normal social interaction such as saying hello or goodbye

Behaviour

Preferring to play with objects rather than people

Developing a highly specific interest in a subject or activity

Becoming extremely attached to a certain toy or object

Reluctance or refusal to go to school

Behaviour may be becoming more challenging. When upset, you might see violence, aggression, shouting, self-injurious behaviour, inappropriate touching, smearing or pica (eating non-edible items)


Signs of autism in teenagers

Teenagers with autism can often become depressed and withdrawn. It may be that as a child, their symptoms didn’t affect them so much because they weren’t aware of them and other children their age didn’t notice, but as they become older, they become more aware of themselves and their differences to other people their age such as:

Struggling to maintain or not taking turns in a conversation

Talking a lot about one particular subject

Becoming confused by slang language or taking things literally

Have a very good vocabulary and talk in a formal, old-fashioned way

Finding it hard to follow instructions or join in with games

Not understanding sarcasm, tone of voice or body language

This difficulty in developing relationships and potentially becoming a target for teasing or bullying can have a huge impact on their self-esteem which can cause problems with depression, anxiety and feeling like they don’t ‘fit in’. At this age, some people on the spectrum find that they excel academically and may find themselves progressing quicker than their peers. For some, the routine and predictability of the lessons at secondary school can be comforting. If a disruption to this routine such as having a supply teacher for a lesson or the school bus being late upsets and aggravates them, this could be a sign of autism.

For young people who experience these difficulties, it can be a very positive step to consult a medical professional to try to get a diagnosis. Quite often, it is very confusing for the individual because they can’t understand why they struggle to make friends or don’t enjoy the same things that their peers do. Having a diagnosis can clarify this and help them to make sense of their world. It will also give them access to much more support and advice, including social groups where they can meet other people their age going through a similar experience. It can also help others to understand the reasons for their differences and, by working with the school, it can improve their school life.


Signs of autism in adults

There are many adults on the autism spectrum who have gone through life without a diagnosis and have found their symptoms manageable but as they come into adulthood and have more responsibilities, they find it harder to cope.

In an employment setting you may find that:

You struggle to follow instructions

You like to do things your own way and you become upset if a senior member of staff tries to tell you to do it differently

You become overwhelmed if you asked to do too many things at once

You struggle to work in bright, busy environments such as supermarkets

You enjoy and excel at jobs that require routine, logic and a high level of detail such as IT, coding, quality control etc.

Other signs of autism to look out for might include

Sensory issues

A lack of empathy

A feeling of displacement or not fitting in

A dependence on routine

A lack of interest or feeling anxious in social situations

Uncomfortable making eye contact or maintaining physical contact

Intense interest in specific subjects


www.autism-anglia.org.uk/signs-of-autism?__cf_chl_jschl_t...
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#70 [Permalink] Posted on 24th December 2020 17:57
Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ)

The Autism-Spectrum Quotient Test (abbreviated to AQ) is a diagnostic questionnaire designed to measure the expression of Autism-Spectrum traits in an individual, by his or her own subjective self-assessment.

It was first published in 2001 by Simon Barron-Cohen and his colleagues at the Cambridge Autism Research Centre as part of the the widely cited study entitled The Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ): Evidence from Asperger syndrome/high-functioning autism, males and females, scientists and mathematicians.

Take the test

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#71 [Permalink] Posted on 13th January 2021 12:59
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#72 [Permalink] Posted on 14th March 2021 08:18
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#73 [Permalink] Posted on 14th March 2021 08:30
Stimming, Hand Flapping and Other Self Stimulatory Behaviors in Autism

Stimming is a kind of self stimulation and is one of many possible indicators of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A person who stims shows repetitive body movements that can involve all five senses or moving objects in a repetitive motion. Stimming is also known as “stereotypy.”

What causes stimming in autistic children?
There are several reasons stimming can occur in autistic people.

Types of stimming

Hand flapping

Of all the stimming behaviors, hand flapping is perhaps one this is most noticeable in children with ASD. It is a type of repetitive behavior that can occur for short or long durations.

There are various forms in which hand-flapping can present itself as a self-stimulatory behavior, including:

Moving fingers vigorously
Clicking fingers
Moving arms

Most of the time, hand flapping is nothing to worry about. The behavior can be triggered by any of the following:

Excitement
Nervousness
Fidgeting
Decreased body movements

This would only be a problem if it results in self-harm or gets in the way of the child’s daily living, through limiting the use of his/her hands, or his/her ability to function in the world.

Verbal and auditory stimming
Auditory stimming is anything that affects a person’s sense of hearing. It may include:

Repetitive speech (learned words such as song lyrics, movie lines, book passages)
Covering or tapping of ears, snapping fingers, or tapping on objects repeatedly
Humming, grunting, or high-pitched noises

Visual stimming
Visual stimming is a behavior that uses a person’s sense of sight. It may include:

Staring blankly at objects
Hand-flapping
Lining up objects such as toys
Blinking repeatedly
Turning lights on and off

Tactile stimming
Tactile stimming refers to a person’s sense of touch. Examples may include:

Rubbing or scratching of hands or objects
Repetitive hand motions such as opening and closing fists
Tapping fingers repeatedly
Tactile defensiveness

Vestibular stimming
A vestibular stim is a behavior linked to a person’s sense of balance and movement. It may include:

Rocking back and forth or side to side
Twirling or spinning
Jumping repeatedly
Hanging upside down

Olfactory or taste stimming
Olfactory stimming centers around a person’s sense of taste and smell. It includes repetitive behaviors like the following:

Smelling objects
Tasting unusual objects
Licking hand or objects
autism helmet


Should I stop stimming?

In most cases, stimming is not harmful and does not need to be stopped nor suppressed. Karen Wang, author of the book My Baby Rides the Short Bus: The Unabashedly Human Experience of Raising Kids With Disabilities believes if a stim is successfully eliminated, then it is likely that it will be replaced with a new one.

Despite this, parents and caregivers of autistic kids may want to lessen the behavior to avoid self injurious behaviors or maintain a level of social acceptability. An autism helmet can prevent children from injuring themselves in the event that they do engage in head banging.


How to reduce stimming behavior
There are several ways to control stimming although it is difficult to stop people with autism from stimming altogether. But first, we need to consider the reasons behind the stimming behavior.

Rule out medical conditions
Some medical conditions like ear infections, migraines, and physical pain can worsen stimming behaviors in autistic people, so it’s important to have this checked and addressed as soon as possible, particularly if your child with autism is non verbal.

Encourage exercise
Studies have shown that exercise and other physical activities can release tension and reduce stimming in people with autism. Engaging autistic people in exercise for a few minutes every day might help stop stimming to some extent.

Create a calm, safe environment
Ensure your home is a safe, quiet space in order to prevent stress and anxiety (which can often cause stimming). Your child’s home should be a place where most outside factors that trigger stimming are avoided, creating the best possible environment for the child.

Use stims as a reward
The use of a stimming behavior can be offered as a reward after a challenging activity. This might sound strange, but adopting this strategy means the child with autism has the freedom to express himself/herself in a way that he/she chooses (and he/she will possibly stim less throughout the rest of the day) (Moore, 2008).

Managing Emotions and Self-Regulation
While there are many approaches parents and caregivers can take to help manage a child’s stims, the most effective might be to work towards instilling self-regulation. It is widely believed that stimming may be lessened when a child learns to manage his/her emotions.

Management of emotion for ASD children
Children with autism have difficulty recognizing their own emotions as well as the feelings of other people. Encouraging an autistic child to describe what he/she is feeling can therefore be challenging – but it is possible.

Here are some tips to help autistic children learn how to recognize and regulate emotions (Naseef, Ariel, 2006):

Explain to the child why he/she might be behaving a certain way: This is the first step towards helping him/her understand forms of emotion. Let the child know that others also experience these feelings, but there are ways to overcome them.

Understand the child’s sensitivities and unique reactions to situations and create an action plan: For example, if the child gets anxious in a noisy room, teach him/her to find a quiet place to calm down.

Prepare and inform: When a situation, perhaps a social event, is likely to occur which will cause the child stress, inform him/her beforehand and challenge the child to go through it with the promise of a reward when he/she succeeds.

www.autismparentingmagazine.com/autism-stimming-causes-ma...
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#74 [Permalink] Posted on 17th March 2021 17:18
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#75 [Permalink] Posted on 18th March 2021 14:55
Vaccines do not cause autism.

Some people have had concerns that ASD might be linked to the vaccines children receive, but studies have shown that there is no link between receiving vaccines and developing ASD. In 2011, an Institute of Medicine (IOM) reportexternal icon on eight vaccines given to children and adults found that with rare exceptions, these vaccines are very safe.

A 2013 CDC study [PDF – 7 pages]external icon added to the research showing that vaccines do not cause ASD. The study looked at the number of antigens (substances in vaccines that cause the body’s immune system to produce disease-fighting antibodies) from vaccines during the first two years of life. The results showed that the total amount of antigen from vaccines received was the same between children with ASD and those that did not have ASD.

Vaccine ingredients do not cause autism.

One vaccine ingredient that has been studied specifically is thimerosal, a mercury-based preservative used to prevent contamination of multidose vials of vaccines. Research shows that thimerosal does not cause ASD. In fact, a 2004 scientific reviewexternal icon by the IOM concluded that “the evidence favors rejection of a causal relationship between thimerosal–containing vaccines and autism.” Since 2003, there have been nine CDC-funded or conducted studies pdf icon[PDF – 2 pages] that have found no link between thimerosal-containing vaccines and ASD, as well as no link between the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine and ASD in children.

Between 1999 and 2001, thimerosal was removed or reduced to trace amounts in all childhood vaccines except for some flu vaccines. This was done as part of a broader national effort to reduce all types of mercury exposure in children before studies were conducted that determined that thimerosal was not harmful. It was done as a precaution. Currently, the only childhood vaccines that contain thimerosal are flu vaccines packaged in multidose vials. Thimerosal-free alternatives are also available for flu vaccine. For more information, see the Timeline for Thimerosal in Vaccines.

Besides thimerosal, some people have had concerns about other vaccine ingredients in relation to ASD as well. However, no links have been found between any vaccine ingredients and ASD.

www.cdc.gov/vaccinesafety/concerns/autism.html
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