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Ameerul Mu'mineen Ali Ibn Abi Talib (RA) al-Murtada

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#46 [Permalink] Posted on 16th January 2014 10:06
A Historic Lecture of Hadrat Ali رضي الله عنه Concerning the Superiority of Hadrat Abu Bakr رضي الله عنه and Hadrat Umar رضي الله عنه


Hadrat Suwayd Ibn Ghaflah رحمه الله narrates that he once passed by a group of people who were degrading the status of Hadrat Abu Bakr رضي الله عنه and Hadrat 'Umar رضي الله عنه. When he reported this to Hadrat 'Ali رضي الله عنه, he said, "May Allaah curse those who harbour anything besides good towards the two illustrious men! They were the brothers and extremely close companions of the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم."

Hadrat 'Ali رضي الله عنه then mounted the pulpit and delivered an eloquent lecture in which he said:

"What is the matter with some people who speak about the two leaders of the Quraysh and the two fathers of the Muslims in a manner that I would never. I absolve myself from what they say and I shall punish for it. I swear by the Being Who splits the seed and Who creates the soul that it is only Allaah-fearing Mu'mineen who love these two men, and only the sinful outcast who dislikes them.

They were both true and loyal companions of the Messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه وسلم who enjoined good, forbade evil, punished criminals and never trespassed the ways of the Messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه وسلم in any matter. The Messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه وسلم never valued any opinion as he did theirs and did not love anyone as much as he loved them.

The Messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه وسلم passed through this world well pleased with them and the people were also just as pleased. Abu Bakr was apointed by the Messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه وسلم to lead the prayer and when the Messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه وسلم passed away, the Muslims entrusted the task of leading the prayer with him and also handed over their Zakah to him, because these two (Salah and Zakah) are always coupled (mentioned together in the Qur'an).

I was the first from amongst the progeny of 'Abdul Muttalib to nominate him (as Khaleefah). He, however, did not like to assume the post and wanted one of us to rather fill it for him. By Allaah! He was the best of those left after the Messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه وسلم, the most compassionate of them, the kindest, the wisest in his piety and the first to accept Islaam. The Messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه وسلم likened him to (the noble angel) Mikaa'eel عليه السلام in his kindness and mercy and to (the noble Prophet) Ibraheem عليه السلام in his forgiving nature and reputation. He walked the path of the Messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه وسلم until he passed away. May Allaah سبحانه و تعالى shower His mercy upon him."

Hadrat 'Ali رضي الله عنه continued, "With consultation from the people, Abu Bakr appointed 'Umar Ibn al-Khattaab as his successor. While some people disapproved and others approved, I was amongst those who approved. By Allaah! Before he left this world, 'Umar won the approval of all of those who had disapproved (of his appointment). He managed affairs in the manner that the Messenger of Allaah and his companion (Hadrat Abu Bakr) managed affairs, and he followed in their footsteps just as a foal follows in the footsteps of his mother.

By Allaah! He was the best of all of those who remained (after Hadrat Bakr). He was compassionate and merciful and helped the oppressed against the oppressor. Allaah سبحانه و تعالى brought the truth on his tongue to the extent that we actually thought that an angel spoke with his tongue. Allaah سبحانه و تعالى strengthened Islaam by his entering its fold and his migration was a bolster for the Deen.

While Allaah سبحانه و تعالى filled the hearts of the Mu'mineen (believers) with love for him, Allaah also filled the hearts of the Munafiqeen (hypocrites) with fear for him. The Messenger of Allaah likened him to (the noble Angel) Jibraa'eel عليه السلام in his sterness and austerity towards the enemies, and to (the noble Prophet) Nooh عليه السلام in his admonishment and frustration towards the Kuffaar (disbelievers).

Which of you can compare to the two of them? Their heights cannot be reached without having love for them and following in their footsteps. Whoever loves them loves me. On the other hand, whoever dislikes them dislikes me, and I am absolved of such a person. Had I warned against reviling the two of them previously, I would have certainly given the most severe punishment for it. Now after this proclamation of mine, if anyone says anything like this, he will be punished as a slanderer is punished.

Take note! The best person of this Ummah after its Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم, is Abu Bakr and then Umar. Allaah سبحانه و تعالى knows best where the best person after them is. I have now made myself clear and seek Allaah's pardon for myself and on your behalf."


[Khaythamah, La'alkaa'i, Abu Hasan Baghdadi, Shirazi, Ibn Mandah and Ibn Asaakir, as quoted in 'Muntakhab Kanzul Ummal', vol 4, p446; Hayaatus Sahaabah رضي الله عنهم, vol 2, pp 483-484]
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#47 [Permalink] Posted on 16th January 2014 10:06
Masrooq رحمه الله said: "The people used to learn from six: 'Umar, 'Ali, 'Abdullah, Abu Moosa, Zayd Ibn Thabit and 'Ubayy Ibn Ka'b." رضي الله عنهم

And he said: "I got to know the Companions of Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم, and I realised that the most prominent of them in knowledge were six: 'Umar, 'Ali, 'Abdullah (Ibn Mas'ood), Abud-Dardaa', 'Ubayy Ibn Ka'b and Zayd ibn Thabit رضي الله عنهم. Then I got to know the six, and I realised that the most prominent in knowledge among them were two: 'Ali and 'Abdullah."

He also said: "The most prominent in knowledge are three: a scholar in Madeenah, a scholar in Syria and a scholar in 'Iraq. The scholar in Madeenah was 'Ali Ibn Abi Talib رضي الله عنه, the scholar in Koofah (in 'Iraq) was 'Abdullah Ibn Mas'ood رضي الله عنه, and the scholar in Syria was was Abud-Dardaa' رضي الله عنه."

When they met, the scholar of Syria and the scholar of 'Iraq would ask the scholar of Madeenah, and he would not ask them.

[Dr. 'Ali Muhammad as-Sallabi: 'Ali Ibn Abi Talib رضي الله عنه, IIPH, vol. 1, p. 246,]
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#48 [Permalink] Posted on 20th January 2014 09:59
Sayyiduna 'Umar رضي الله عنه thought of Sayyiduna 'Ali رضي الله عنه as one of the best of those who could lead the people. It was narrated from him that he was walking with a man among the Ansaar رضي الله عنهم and he said: "Who do you think will succeed me?"

The Ansaari listed the names of some of the Muhaajireen رضي الله عنهم, but he did not mention Sayyiduna 'Ali رضي الله عنه. Sayyiduna 'Umar رضي الله عنه said: "What do you think of 'Ali? For by Allaah, if you appointed him, he would lead you on the path of truth even if you were reluctant."

[Dr. 'Ali Muhammad as-Sallabi: 'Ali Ibn Abi Talib رضي الله عنه, IIPH, vol. 1]
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#49 [Permalink] Posted on 3rd February 2014 10:27
It is narrated that Sayyiduna 'Ali Ibn Abi Talib رضي الله عنه said, "Beware of exaggerating about us; say that we are slaves under the dominion of our Lord."

It is also narrated from Sayyiduna 'Ali رضي الله عنه that he said, "O Allah, I renounce those who exaggerate about me just as 'Eesa Ibn Maryam (Jesus the son of Mary, peace be upon them) renounced the Christians. O Allah, humiliate them forever and do not support any of them."

[Dr. 'Ali Muhammad as-Sallabi: 'Ali Ibn Abi Talib رضي الله عنه, IIPH, vol. 2, p. 456]
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#50 [Permalink] Posted on 3rd February 2014 15:51
Seifeddine-M wrote:
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Is there a mistake in this quote? Should it not read quran instead of Quraysh
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#51 [Permalink] Posted on 11th February 2014 10:05
ImranBro wrote:
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jazakallahu khayra
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#52 [Permalink] Posted on 11th February 2014 10:05
Sayyiduna 'Ali رضي الله عنه went out wearing a cloak from Aden, and he said: "I was given this garment to wear by my brother and close friend, Ameerul Mu'mineen 'Umar."

Another report from Abus-Safar said: "'Ali Ibn Abi Talib رضي الله عنه was seen wearing a cloak that he used to wear often. It was said: 'O Ameerul Mu'mineen, you wear this cloak a great deal.' He said: 'Yes, I was given this garment to wear by my brother and close friend 'Umar Ibn al-Khattab رضي الله عنه; he was sincere to Allaah, and Allaah rewarded him.' Then he wept."

[Dr. 'Ali Muhammad as-Sallabi: 'Ali Ibn Abi Talib رضي الله عنه, IIPH, vol. 1, p. 258]
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#53 [Permalink] Posted on 12th February 2014 09:56
One of the books that played a role in distorting the history of the Companions رضي الله عنهم is the book called Nahj al-Balagha. This book is faulty in terms of both its chains of narration and its text. It was compiled three and a half centuries after Sayyiduna 'Ali رضي الله عنه died, without any chain of narration. The Shia attributed Nahj al-Balagha to ash-Shareef ar-Radiy, who was not accepted by the hadeeth scholars even when he gave a chain of narrators, in cases where the reports support his innovations, so how about if no chain of narration is given at all, as is the case in Nahj al-Balagha? As for the one whom the scholars accused of lying, that is his brother 'Ali. The scholars discussed him and said:

Ibn Khallikan رحمه الله said in Tarjumat ash-Shareef al-Murtadiy: "The scholars differed concerning the book Nahj al-Balagha, which is a compilation of the words of Imam 'Ali Ibn Abi Talib رضي الله عنه, as to whether it was compiled by 'Ali or his brother ar-Radiy. It was said that these were not the words of 'Ali; rather that the one who compiled it and attributed it to him was the one who fabricated it. And Allaah knows best.

Imam Adh-Dhahabi رحمه الله said: "The one who studies Nahj al-Balagha will be certain that it is falsely attributed to Ameerul Mu'mineen 'Ali رضي الله عنه. It contains blatant insults and criticism of Sayyiduna Abu Bakr رضي الله عنه and Sayyiduna 'Umar رضي الله عنه as well as contradictions, and is written in a weak and pallid style such that anyone who knows anything the Qurayshi Companions and those who came after them, and their way of thinking, will be certain that most of it is false."

Shaykhul Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah رحمه الله said: "The scholars know that most of the speeches in this book are fabricated and falsely attributed to Sayyiduna 'Ali رضي الله عنه, hence we do not find most of it in earlier books, and it has no known chain of transmission."

al-Hafidh Ibn Hajar رحمه الله accuses ash-Shareef al-Murtadiy of fabricating it and says: "The one who studies it will be certain that it is falsely attributed to Ameerul Mu'mineen 'Ali رضي الله عنه, and most of it is false."

Based on the above comments and others, a number of researchers discussed this topic and said that this book cannot be soundly attributed to Imam 'Ali رضي الله عنه.

We may note some of the most important reasons why early and modern scholars doubted the attribution of Nahj al-Balagha to Imam 'Ali رضي الله عنه:

* It is devoid of documented chains of narration that would support the attribution of its words to Sayyiduna 'Ali رضي الله عنه.

* It contains a large number of lengthy speeches, which would have been difficult to memorise without getting mixed up at that time, before the era of compiling and writing things down. Even the speeches of the Messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه وسلم have not reached us in complete form, despite the great deal of care and attention given to them.

* We can see many of its statements and speeches in trustworthy sources when they are attributed to someone other than Sayyiduna 'Ali رضي الله عنه, but the author of Nahj al-Balagha attributes them to him.

* This book contains words that criticise the Rightly Guided Caliphs رضي الله عنهم who preceded Sayyiduna 'Ali رضي الله عنه, in a manner that is not befitting him or them; these words contradict what is know about Sayyiduna 'Ali's رضي الله عنه respect for them. One example is the report of the speech known as Shaqshaqiyyah, in which his keenness to become caliph is demonstrated, even though he was known to be an ascetic who cared little about worldly matters.

* The prevalence of rhymed prose in the book. A number of literary critics think that so much rhymed prose is not in accordance with the spirit of Sayyiduna 'Ali's رضي الله عنه era, when people sought to avoid overdoing things, even though the kind of rhymed prose that comes without much effort was not far removed from the spirit of that time.

* Writing in a very ornate manner, which is a demonstration of literary ability. This is a feature of the 'Abbasid era, with its love of flowery speech such as we find in the description of peacocks, bats, bees, ants, plants, clouds and so on.

* The philosophical style that is scattered throughout the book was unknown to the Muslims until the third century AH, when Greek, Persian and Indian books were translated. This is more like the words of philosophers and orators than the words of the Companions and the Rightly Guided Caliphs رضي الله عنهم.

We should beware of this book when talking about the Companions and what happened between them and Ameerul Mu'mineen 'Ali رضي الله عنه. We should measure its texts against the Qur'an and Sunnah; whatever is in accordance with the Qur'an and Sunnah, there is nothing wrong with referring to it, but whatever is contrary to them, we should pay no attention to it.

[Dr. 'Ali Muhammad as-Sallabi: 'Ali Ibn Abi Talib رضي الله عنه, IIPH, vol. 2, pp. 237-239]
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#54 [Permalink] Posted on 17th February 2014 10:17
'Abdullah Ibn Ahmad Ibn Hanbal رحمه الله said:

"I was sitting before my father one day when a group of people from Karkh came and talked a great deal about the caliphate of Sayyiduna Abu Bakr رضي الله عنه, the caliphate of Sayyiduna 'Umar رضي الله عنه and the caliphate of Sayyiduna 'Uthman رضي الله عنه, and they talked even more about the caliphate of Sayyiduna 'Ali Ibn Abi Talib رضي الله عنه. My father raised his head to look at them and said: 'O people, you have talked too much about 'Ali and the caliphate, and the caliphate and 'Ali. Do you think that the caliphate adorned 'Ali? On the contrary, 'Ali adorned it.'"

[Dr. 'Ali Muhammad as-Sallabi: 'Ali Ibn Abi Talib رضي الله عنه, IIPH]
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#55 [Permalink] Posted on 18th February 2014 09:51
al-Hasan al-Basri رحمه الله was asked about Sayyiduna 'Ali Ibn Abi Talib رضي الله عنه, and he said:

"By Allaah, 'Ali رضي الله عنه was a straight arrow that Allaah سبحانه و تعالى sent against His enemy, the prominent jurist of this Ummah, whose service to Islam cannot be denied, one of the most senior figures in Islam, a relative of the Messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه وسلم. He was never heedless of the command of Allaah سبحانه و تعالى and never feared the blame of the blamers, he never showed any interest in worldly gains, he adhered to the Qur'an in the most perfect manner, and thus he attained the pleasure of Allaah سبحانه و تعالى. This was 'Ali Ibn Abi Talib رضي الله عنه."

[Dr. 'Ali Muhammad as-Sallabi: 'Ali Ibn Abi Talib رضي الله عنه, IIPH, vol. 2, pp. 629-630]
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#56 [Permalink] Posted on 20th February 2014 13:16
It was narrated from Rabee'ah al-Jarshi that mention was made of Sayyiduna 'Ali رضي الله عنه in the presence of a man, and Sayyiduna Sa'd Ibn Abi Waqqas رضي الله عنه was also present. Sayyiduna Sa'd رضي الله عنه said to him:

"Do you remember 'Ali? Verily, he had four qualities which, if I had one of them, would be dearer to me than such and such." And he mentioned the red camels.

These four qualities were: the saying of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم, "I shall give the banner..." [1]; his saying, "You are to me like Haroon was to Moosa," [2]; and his saying, "If I am a person's mawla, 'Ali is also his mawla." [3] (The narrator forgot the last one). [4]

Notes:

[1] Imam Bukhari رحمه الله and Muslim رحمه الله narrated in their Sahihs from the way of 'Abdulaziz ibn Abi Hazim and 'Abdulrahman ibn Ya'koub, both from the way of Abu Hazim Salamah ibn Dinar - and the wording is that of 'Abdulaziz - who said: (Sahl ibn Sa'd Al-Sa'idy [May Allah be pleased with him] told me that the Messenger of Allah [Prayers of Allah and Peace upon him] said on the Day of Khaibar: "I will give this banner (flag) tomorrow to a man whom Allah will facilitate victory through him. He loves Allah and His Messenger, and is loved by Allah and His Messenger". He (Sahl) said: So the people kept on thinking the whole night as to which one from among them will be given the banner? In the morning the people eagerly rushed to Allah's Messenger [Prayers of Allah and Peace upon him], all of them hoping to be the one who is given it. He said: "Where is Ali ibn Abi Talib?" The people replied: He is suffering from eye-trouble. He said: "Send for him and bring him to me". So when 'Ali رضي الله عنه was brought, the Messenger [Prayers of Allah and Peace upon him] spat in his eyes and invoked Allah to cure him, and he became alright as if he had no ailment. The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم then gave him the banner. 'Ali رضي الله عنه said: "O Allah's Messenger, Shall I fight them (i.e. the enemies) till they become like us?" So he said: "Proceed to them steadily till you approach near to them, and then invite them to Islam and inform them of their duties towards Allah which Islam prescribes for them, for by Allah, if one man is guided on the right path through you, it would be better for you than [a great number of] red camels".

[2] The Messenger of Allaah (صلى الله عليه وسلم‎) remarked to Hadrat Ali (رضي الله عنه), "You are to me like Haroon (عليه السلام) was to Moosa (عليه السلام), except that there is to be no prophet after me." [Saheeh al-Bukhari]

[3] At-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah

[4] Dr. 'Ali Muhammad as-Sallabi: 'Ali Ibn Abi Talib رضي الله عنه, IIPH, vol. 2, p. 627
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#57 [Permalink] Posted on 27th February 2014 10:01
It is narrated that 'Amr Ibn Hubnashi said that Imam al-Hasan Ibn 'Ali رضي الله عنهما addressed them after the killing of Ameerul Mu'mineen Sayyiduna 'Ali رضي الله عنه and said:

"A man left you yesterday who was never preceded by the early ones in knowledge and will never be caught up with by the later ones. The Messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه وسلم used to send him on expeditions and give him the banner, and he would not give up fighting until victory was granted to him. He did not leave behind any gold or silver, except for seven hundred dirhams from his stipend, which he was keeping for the servant of his family."

[Dr. 'Ali Muhammad as-Sallabi: 'Ali Ibn Abi Talib رضي الله عنه, IIPH, vol. 2, p. 627]


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#58 [Permalink] Posted on 23rd October 2015 12:41
Did the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم Appoint 'Ali رضي الله عنه as His Successor? A Commentary of the Hadeeth: "You are unto me as Haaroon was unto Moosaa."


On the authrority of Sa'd Ibn Abi Waqqaas رضي الله عنه, that the Messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه وسلم said to 'Ali Ibn Abi Taalib رضي الله عنه: "You are unto me as Haaroon was unto Moosaa, except that there will be no Prophet after me." [1]

The narration of Ahmad on the authority of Sa'eed Ibn al-Musayyib has it that 'Ali رضي الله عنه replied: "I am content, I am content!"

Ibn Sa'd narrates essentially the same story on the authority of al-Baraa' رضي الله عنه and Zayd Ibn Arqam رضي الله عنه, who reported that 'Ali's رضي الله عنه reply was, "Indeed, O Messenger of Allaah,' to which the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said, "It is indeed so."

They also mention at the beginning of their report that the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said, "Either I or you must stay behind." 'Ali رضي الله عنه stayed behind and heard people saying, "He has only left him behind because he dislikes something about him." 'Ali رضي الله عنه followed the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم and related this to him; and then the hadeeth proceeds in the same way. The chain of this version is strong.

Imaam Al-Qaadee 'Iyaad رحمه الله said,

"This hadeeth is one of those which the Rawaafid, the Imaamiyyah and other Shi'ah sects cite as proof that the caliphate was rightfully Ali's رضي الله عنه, and that the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم named him as his successor. Then these factions differed: the Rawaafid declared that all the other Companions رضي الله عنهم were unbelievers because they upheld the caliphate of other than 'Ali رضي الله عنه while some of them even went as far as to declare 'Ali رضي الله عنه an unbeliever for failing to claim what was 'rightfully his' as they saw it. Such an opinion is too stupid and ridiculous to even require rebuttal or debate. There is no doubt that whoever holds this opinion is an unbeliever, because to charge the whole Ummah and the first generation of Muslims with unbelief is to do away with the transmission of the Sacred Law, and ultimately to destroy Islaam itself.

Now besided these extremists, the other Shi'ah sects do not follow this path. The Imaamiyyah, and some of the Mu'tazilah, say that the Companions رضي الله عنهم were wrong to prefer other than 'Ali رضي الله عنه, but not unbelievers on account of it. Some of the Mu'tazilah do not even say it was wrong, since they hold that it is permissible to prefer a supposedly lesser person for the caliphate.

In any case, this hadeeth is not a supporting evidence for any of them. All it does is affirm a virtue of 'Ali, and does not in any way suggest that he was better than anyone else. Nor does it prove that the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم named 'Ali رضي الله عنه as his successor, since the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said these words when he left 'Ali رضي الله عنه in charge of Madeenah during the Campaign of Tabook. This is supported by the fact that Haaroon عليه السلام, the object of the comparison, did not succeed Moosaa after him but actually passed away forty years before Moosaa عليه السلام did according to the dominant opinion of the historians. They also say that Moosaa عليه السلام only left Haaroon عليه السلام in charge while he went to meet his Lord to engage in intimate discourse with Him. Allaah knows best.

The scholars also say that this hadeeth proves that when Prophet 'Eesaa Ibn Maryam عليه السلام (Jesus the son of Mary) returns to this world at the end of time, he will return as a ruler of this community and will rule according to the Law of our Prophet Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم. He will not return as a Prophet." [2]

Imaam Ibn Hajar al-'Asqalaani رحمه الله said,

"Some have cited this hadeeth as evidence that 'Ali رضي الله عنه was more deserving of the caliphate than any other Companion, since Haaroon عليه السلام was Moosaa's عليه السلام vicegerant. The response to this is that Haaroon عليه السلام was only Moosaa's عليه السلام vicegerant in Moosaa's عليه السلام lifetime and not after his death, since all are agreed that he died before Moosaa عليه السلام. Al-Khattaabi pointed this out. At-Tayyibi said that the meaning of this hadeeth is, ''Ali is connected to me just as Haaroon was to Moosa.' If this is ambiguous, it is clarified by what he said next: 'Except that there shall be no Prophet after me.' This tells us that the connection between them did not pertain to prophethood but to a lower level, namely vicegerancy; and since Haaroon عليه السلام, the object of the comparison, was only vicegerant during the lifetime of Moosaa عليه السلام, this means that 'Ali's رضي الله عنه vicegerancy was also limited to the lifetime of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم. Allaah knows best." [3]

Notes:

[1] Saheeh Muslim

[2] Imaam an-Nawawi رحمه الله, Sharh Saheeh Muslim

[3] Imaam Ibn Hajar رحمه الله, Sharh Saheeh al-Bukhaari
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