Source Wayl = destruction. Originally the word was: Way = destruction, way la ka = destruction for you. This term was used so often that it became the word Wayl.
The word is used when someone is extremely frustrated at someone else. I.e. A frustrated parent might say to a disobedient son waylaka aamin! (destruction to you, believe!)
In these verses, Allah is frustrated at the greedy corrupt people who have wealth but dont spend it on the needy, but instead want to get more and more even if they're not deserving of it. So wayl to the mutaffifeen and the humazah. Wayl is used 27 times in the Quran, including 10 times in surah Mursalaat [surah 77].
Wayli hasra = Irrevocable regret. So the people who fit the character of being cursed, they will have a regret on the Day of Judgment, but they cannot return back to mend their errors.
Humazah -Lumazah (fu'ala) - Khutamah. All these words are Connected together. They allude to something that happens a lot, and they all allude to a similar in meaning/interchangable in the ways they are used in speech.
The Explanation of Humazah and Lumazah:
Ar-Razi; Ibn abbas said humaz is behind the back and lumaz is infront of the face.
Humazah - insults someone behind their back (and they do this alot because the word humazah/fu'ala suggests this person does it often), and Lumazah - insults people infront of their face too.
Allah is cursing those who do either of the above.
When does humaz and lumaz occur? Usually gossiping. When a persons mind isn't covered in a higher purposed mindset. And thats why in the previous surah, surah Asr, Allah mentions the types of people who are in loss.
It's only the people who have a low character who survive off picking on faults and insulting people.
Az-Zamakshari - qasr (breaking something) - someones self-worth. Lumaz = sarcasm in someones face to insult them. I.e. "You're genius". Both the abuser and abused know its an insult but the abused cant defend themselves due to the sarcasm being used against them.
Someone cursing someone / foul language and laughing at someone falls into lumaz.
Ruh al Ma'ani - Al-Aloosi;
1 - Wayl is used as an emotion - condemnation, anguish.
When someone is insulted behind their back and cursed by someone in their face, they feel saddened. They are experiencing a form of self destruction (wayl) due to the bullying they are continuously facing.
But in this ayah/verse, Allah defends the weak and abused by saying - Wayl (destruction) to the slanderer and backbiter. So He is defending the weak by promising to destroy the oppressors who attempt to destroy the weak.
Ibn Abbas said: humaza; gheebah (backbites), lumazah; points out the flaws in people over and over again.
Abu Zayd said;
Humazah; harms with hands.
Lumazah; harms with tongue.
lumazah; behind back, in secret.
humazah;those who call people by names they dont like.
Humazah; Makes fun of one you sit next to, even with their eyes i.e. A condescending look etc.
Ibn Keesan; the one who passes his eyes over people, points at them to humiliate them, who insults other people.
Ibn Jawza' asked Ibn Abbas; Who are these people who are cursed/wayl? Ibn abbas replied; they continuously insult and abuse people i.e. "That short man there, that ugly man" etc.
They all condescend others and belittle them through sarcasm, jealousy, and even jokingly.
It can happen in any matter of religion too. I.e. Attack peoples religiousness, they're beard, they're hijab/niqab etc. Since that is their following of the religion. Even if you disagree with them in fiqh issues, respect their opinion and dont insult them.
Also includes making fun of peoples walking etc.
You should not do any acts of humuz, lumuz, even through your eyes etc.
O you who have believed, let not a people ridicule [another] people; perhaps they may be better than them; nor let women ridicule [other] women; perhaps they may be better than them. And do not insult one another and do not call each other by [offensive] nicknames. Wretched is the name of disobedience after [one's] faith. And whoever does not repent - then it is those who are the wrongdoers.
The word "woe" in Arabic implies destruction or evil for its object, carrying with it the feeling of a supplication being made against a person or group of people. However, Sibaway, the great Arabist, noted that this is not always the case. For example, "Woe to those who alter measures," in Surah Mutaffifin is not a supplication but an account of the actual words people said about those who cheat. Imam Ibn 'Ashur rh.a states that in this surah the word "woe" carries the meaning of a supplication directed at someone.
This implies that there was more than one person involved in insulting the Prophet's community, making the threat of this chapter relevant to anyone who acquires these evil habits.
"Scorner and mocker"
Both "humaza" and "lumaza" are in the fu`al (فعل) form. This implies that the verb's subject engaged in the act so much, it became a habit (sigh al-mubalagh). For example, if a person laughs a lot, the Arabs would say duhak, and for a hard-hearted person who abuses his riding animal hutam, signifying his lack of mercy and constant abuse.
Appreciating the Early Muslims
As noted above, the form fu`ala is used to show excessiveness. However, if one wanted to show even greater excess in describing a person, he could add the letter "ha" ة to the end of the noun. Thus, "Humaz" becomes "Humaza!" This is important in learning to appreciate the struggles and sacrifices of the early Muslims. When we are in school or at work and people say things about us as Muslims, let us reflect on this chapter and the struggles of the early Muslims, using their example as a source of strength.
This word "humaza" comes from a word which means to insult another by using non-verbal communication. Here, and with the next word "lumaza", it is an adjective whose noun is omitted, "Woe to everyperson who scorns others." One may ask: why was the noun left out? In Arabic language, and this is something amazing, if the noun is omitted and its adjective is left, it is a sign that the adjective takes the place of the noun- meaning it can stand on its own as a descriptive because the person has mastered it (scorning) so well, that it is by this description that they are known. This technique is used to praise or dress down a person depending on the context. Ponder on that!
"Lumaza" means to insult others in a way that causes them grief, and its form carries the same meaning as "humaza" above.
An Important Principle
There is an important principle related to the Qur'an: "Any bad quality that is associated with the polytheists of Mecca, believers should avoid and eradicate within themselves if it exists." Meaning, if a person engages in these types of actions, he declares himself eligible for the same threat directed to the polytheists of Mecca!
This cannot be undone and I am sure it will be greatly appreciated.
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