Turkey: Alcohol no longer served on high-speed trains
Turkey's high-speed railways are now completely alcohol-free, after operator Besler decided to stop selling intoxicating drinks on trains between the capital Ankara and the western town of Eskisehir.
The hour-and-a-half journey was the only remaining high-speed line where passengers could still enjoy a sip on board, writes Hurriyet Daily News. Speaking to the paper, a company official insists the decision was purely economic and was taken due to poor sales on high-speed carriages. He says that alcohol will still be served on long-distance, conventional trains. Hurriyet recalls that Turkish Airlines also cited a lack of demand when they stopped serving alcohol on most domestic flights last year.
Health statistics from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development seem to back such reasoning. They show Turkey's consumption rate is just 1.6 litres of alcohol per capita annually, the lowest among all 34 member states. The measure, however, ties in with President Recep Tayyip Erdogan's long-running anti-alcohol campaign. Last year, his Islamist-rooted ruling AK party passed a controversial law in parliament restricting the sale and advertising of alcohol. It was slammed by critics as a new move to impose an Islamic agenda on a secular, though predominantly Muslim, country.
Turkey bombing: Female suicide attacker hits Istanbul police station BBC News A female suicide bomber has blown herself up in the Turkish city of Istanbul, injuring two police officers, reports say.
She reportedly hit a police station in the city's tourist hub of Sultanahmet.
Istanbul's governor told Turkish TV that the woman spoke English with "a thick accent", but her nationality and identity remained unknown.
No group has yet said they carried out the attack, the second on police in a week.
Police arrested a man who threw grenades and fired a weapon at officers near the prime minister's office last Thursday, but no-one was injured in the attack.
The bomber in the latest incident was reported to have died in the attack.
Police have sealed off an area in the historic district, where the Blue Mosque and the Hagia Sophia museum are located.
Governor Vasip Sahin told Turkish TV that the woman entered the station and told police she had lost her wallet before detonating the bomb, AFP reports.
(Ambassador Abukar Arman is the former Somalia special envoy to the United States and a foreign policy analyst.)
There was never any doubt that Turkey's President Recep Tayyip Erdogan would receive a hero's welcome in Somalia. On Thursday, he vowed to go ahead with the trip despite a bomb attack at a hotel in the Somali capital, Mogadishu, on the eve of his planned visit. Later his office announced he would delay it by a couple of days in order to attend the funeral of Saudi Arabia's King Abdullah bin Abdulaziz.
Still, Erdogan's resolve to visit the Horn of Africa nation so soon after the deadly attack has only heightened his popularity. He landed at Mogadishu airport on Sunday morning and was greeted warmly by Somali President Hassan Sheikh Mohamud.
But how does someone currently facing a barrage of allegations - on account of corruption, delusions of grandeur, dictatorial tendencies, and polarising rhetoric - by both Turkish and western media, earn such an enviable stature in Somalia?
The fact is, Erdogan has done for Somalia what no other world leader has done in decades.
In August 2011, when Erdogan was still prime minister, he ignored the prevalent narrative of Mogadishu as a no-go zone and flew in with his family, senior cabinet members, and representatives from non-governmental organisations and the business sector.
His visit was the first by a non-African leader to the famine-hit Somali capital in two decades and came during the holy month of Ramadan to stress that Ankara was not going to abandon "their Muslim brothers and sisters".
Defying pressure from the international community, Erdogan resisted Nairobi's magnetic field of international corruption.
From 1991 to 2011, the UN and its affiliated international institutions - mostly based in neighbouring Kenya - collected an estimated $55bn on behalf of Somalia. Dubiously, the nation in whose name this hefty sum was collected, has not gained any substantive infrastructure-related or any other sustainable project. Erdogan's team had clear instructions: produce tangible, sustainable results with Turkish funds totalling some $500m.
A massive bilateral nation-building effort followed; roads, hospitals, mosques, and schools were built, the airport was expanded, and many business partnerships were forged.
Within an incredibly short period of time, Erdogan's plan resuscitated Somalia from near death.
Nothing illustrates that fact more than the profound impact that the Turkish aid model has had on the average Internally Displaced Person (IDP) in Somalia.
In addition to setting up feeding centres that provide appetising foods, decent housing, and health clinics, the Turkish aid model has boosted the average IDP's standard of living with economic empowerment. This alone made Erdogan more popular than President Sharif Sheikh Ahmed of the Transitional Federal Government and the current Somali president.
In fact, Erdogan's name now ranks among the most popular choices for a newborn.
On the one hand, Erdogan's Somalia trip is part of an Africa tour intended to strengthen Turkey's economic and diplomatic ties with a dozen of its closest African partners.
On the other, it is aimed at re-energising the strategic partnership between Somalia and Turkey and to reaffirm the latter's commitment to be in it for the long haul. Undeniably, Africa has become the 21st century's geopolitical and geo-economic centre of gravity, and for this reason, Turkey wants to strategically establish itself. With Somalia, Turkey has a sister nation at the heart of the Indian Ocean; a nation with which it shares deep historic ties, and a high potential emerging market.
Due to the competing interests of donor nations, the trajectory of Turkish-Somali relations has not been without its fair share of opposition.
Aside from al-Shabab - which considers any friend of the government as an enemy and claimed responsibility for Thursday's bomb attack - there are under-the-radar passive hostilities that emanate from certain elements within the international community.
This is mainly down to two reasons. First, the more Turkey builds on its success in Somalia, the more the incompetence and the systemic corruption of the international aid model is exposed.
Second, and perhaps more importantly, the more Turkey succeeds, the more the Turkish political model - a hybrid of modern government with Islamic ethos - gains global prominence.
Paving the way
In recent years, the so-called Arab Spring has paved the way for Islamists to take power in a number of Arab countries. Like the AK party in Turkey, Islamists in Egypt and Tunisia have swept all elections and risen to the highest political positions.
This has made some leaders in the Arab Gulf countries very nervous. In response, they have established cozy relations with Egypt's post-coup regime whose modus operandi could be summed as follows; a good Islamist is either buried underground or dies a slow painful death in dungeons.
Not being able to beat Islamists in the ballot boxes isn't an exclusively Arab fear. There are some western states that appear to believe that the rise of Islamic-conscious leadership is bound to impact geopolitics and therefore the balance of power in various strategic regions.
It is against this backdrop that Erdogan comes to Mogadishu, to cut the ribbon on a multimillion dollar, state-of-the-art hospital named after him. He is then scheduled to have a private meeting with his Somali counterpart.
Three issues are likely to top the agenda: major projects to jump-start the Somali economy; the Somali president's awkward relationship with Egypt's Abdel Fattah el-Sisi; and Turkey's readiness to use its $3bn investment in Ethiopia as leverage to help ease regional politics of division.
After all, Erdogan has prudently supported Somalia and remained impartial in the extremely fluid and clan-driven internal politics. (Al Jazeera)
Hundreds of Turkish troops in armoured vehicles have entered northern Syria and evacuated a historic Ottoman tomb and the soldiers guarding it.
Prime Minister Ahmet Davutoglu said the remains of Suleyman Shah would be moved elsewhere in Syria.
He said troops had destroyed the tomb, apparently to prevent it from being used by Islamic State (IS) militants.
Turkey considers the shrine sovereign territory, but Syria condemned the incursion as "flagrant aggression".
In a statement read out on state TV, Syria said Turkey had informed its Istanbul consulate about the operation, but had not awaited Syria's agreement.
Selin Girit, BBC News, on Turkish border with Syria
The tomb of Suleiman Shah was the one and only Turkish enclave abroad, in accordance with a treaty signed in 1921. This was the burial site of Suleyman Shah, the grandfather of the Ottoman Empire's founder Osman I - which meant it had historical significance too.
Turkey was concerned with the rising Islamic State threat in the area. In March 2014, IS threatened to attack the site unless Turkish troops guarding the tomb were withdrawn in three days; but such an attack did not take place. If the tomb had in fact come under attack, that would have provoked serious reaction from Turkey.
In August 2012, President Recep Tayyip Erdogan - then PM - had warned that an act against the tomb would be considered "an attack on our territory, as well an attack on Nato land". Last year, the Turkish parliament authorized the use of force against IS militants. Commentators in Turkish media say the fact that the tomb is now moved and soldiers are evacuated is a relief for Turkey.
Suleyman Shah, who lived from about 1178 to 1236, was grandfather of the founder of the Ottoman empire, Osman I.
Speaking on television, Mr Davutoglu said the operation was carried out "to protect our spiritual values and the safety of our armed forces personnel".
Earlier, in a series of tweets (in Turkish), Mr Davutoglu hailed the armed forces for carrying out a "highly successful" operation amid the "inherent risks" of conflict in Syria.
He said the remains had been moved to Turkey but would soon be rehoused in an area of Syria under Turkish military control, closer to the Turkish border.
The Turkish flag had already been raised over the site, the PM said.
There were no clashes with IS during the operation, but one soldier died in an accident, he added.
The Turkish government is set to establish a parliamentary commission to further regulate the usage of social media platforms.
The draft legislation requires the appointment of Turkey representatives for social media providers
The regulation would allow the government to implement access bans and impose legal and fiscal penalties
ANKARA: The Turkish government is set to establish a parliamentary commission to further regulate the usage of social media platforms.
The launching of the “Digital Mediums Commission” coincides with the plans of the ruling Justice and Development Party (AKP) to adopt legislation to increase the government’s control over free expression on social media.
The idea has been under discussion for a while, but after President Recep Tayyip Erdogan’s daughter Esra Albayrak was insulted on Twitter the government pressed ahead with designing a new legal framework to “abolish these platforms completely or to put them under control”, said Erdogan, who thinks social media platforms that enjoy total freedoms do not suit the nation.
These remarks came some days prior to a live appearance of Erdogan on June 26 on YouTube to give a speech to youth, but his feed was overloaded with hundreds of thousands of dislikes and negative comments from young people saying “No Vote For You Again.”
The draft legislation requires the appointment of Turkey representatives for social media providers, especially Twitter and Netflix to respond to legal requests.
The regulation would allow the government to implement access bans and impose legal and fiscal penalties.
The draft regulation with nine articles is expected to be adopted before parliament goes on vacation on July 24.
Suleyman Irvan, a professor of journalism from Uskudar University, said any restriction on social media may trigger anger from members of Generation Z.
“Obliging social media providers to open an office in Turkey aims at implementing the court rulings about social media content, especially those related to the removal of content, and bringing huge amounts of fees that would discourage any anti-government contents in the future,” he told Arab News.
The main opposition CHP thinks that the move primarily aims at curtailing people’s freedoms. Kemal Kilicdaroglu, main opposition leader, criticized the legislation, claiming that it is because Erdogan received negative feedback from the online audience during his live speech.
“He understands what is going to come from Generation Z. Otherwise, why would this subject come to the fore now? We will defend the areas of freedom against this repressive mindset,” he recently said.
Ankara criticized Twitter last month for suspending more than 7,000 government-linked accounts associated with the AKP’s youth wing, saying it was part of a wider plan to smear the government and to intervene in domestic Turkish politics.
Twitter’s official figures show that 74 percent of the legal requests to remove Twitter content originated from Turkey. The latest “Blocked Web” annual report by Freedom of Expression Association said that access to a total of 408,394 websites was blocked from 2014 to the end of 2019.
Last year, access to 130,000 URL addresses, 7,000 Twitter accounts, 10,000 YouTube videos and 6,251 Facebook posts were blocked by the government. It also banned Twitter in 2014, though the ban was lifted within few weeks through a court ruling in the country which is a global leader in Twitter usage.
Erkan Saka, an expert in social media from Istanbul Bilgi University, does not expect fair recommendations from the commission as the majority of parliamentary commissions are controlled by the members of the ruling party.
“The social media faces less control compared to the mainstream media and the government is keen to change this. This is a new step in legalizing restrictive measures that have intensified since the coup attempt in 2016,” he said.
I felt, this is suitable thread to discuss Turkey. The answer to the second point discussed in Hagia Sofia thread is very lengthy discussion. Because one needs to know historical background of Turkey in detail. The things i will mention might be heard for the first time. The short answer to the second question is, 2010 - 2020 Turkey was and is very different than what Turkey was earlier. Not because of certain upliftment of bans like some claim but because Turkey changed and integrated to liberal order staring from 1990s. Liberal order is not just a economic order but it is a mindset too which effects how a person views Deen. Let me briefly discuss my points in order, starting from 1930 - to 1990.
1923 - 1938: As all the members know, kemalist elite under ataturk declared war to Islam. The brutally enforced kemalism under one party regime (CHP). Kemalism was promoted as the main ideology of Turkey (some works published in those days show it was promoted as new religion)
1938 - 1950: ismet inönü took over after ataturk's death. He continued ataturk's ideology. During mid 1940, new party formed in Turkey by old CHP members lead by Adnan Menderes. The west pushed inönü to shift into democratization - multi party. However, still an Islamic ideology wasnt allowed to enter into politics. Initally, inönü manuplated ballout box several times not to lose the power, however eventually he had to accept defeat and Menderes' party came into power.
Why Menderes' party won? It is mainly because, Turks had seen the brutalility of kemalism reforms. They didnt want to see CHP in power again. They accepted any party that wasnt them. Also Menderes' party was more welcoming than CHP.
1950 - 1960: Menderes' party came to power in 1946. Menderes was close to the US and West. Turkey's economy began to grow starting from 1950s by the means of Marshall aid they received. When Menderes came to power he proceeded removing turkish adhaan which would be called out since 18 years and replacing it with the original Adhan. 4 years later (in 1950) he removed the turkish adhan and replaced it with the original. His small but big contributions to Islam concerned the army. They saw Menderes as a threat to kemalist ideology. The army and their circles used certain political events as justifications to outcast Menderes (generally his contributions to Islam (Arabic Adhan, opening Quran courses) is ignored by academicians as a reason for the 1960 coup). The army decided to bring down Menderes under the guidance of US (of course because Menderes and the US and the West were allies as i mentioned. Army wouldnt able to take such step without getting approval from the US or the West.) Menderes believed he was supported by senior generals in the army but junior officals werent supportive of him (even this can be discussed to certain extend). It was the junior officials who made coup on Menderes. The coup was welcomed and presented as 'Freedom from Menderes' restrictive policies' (generally Turkish politics professors point out that Menderes during his last years (1956 - 1960) brought restrictions to media and freedom of speech). The army trailed Menderes and 3 more people in his party including President Bayar. Except Bayar, Menderes and two Ministers were hanged. It is one of the greatest tragic event in the history of Turkey.
Turkish Military- why they are soo powerful: Military is seen as the guardian of kemalist reforms in those days because ataturk himself was a officer in the Ottoman army. When he formed Turkish republic, his PM's were predominantly previous officers from the Ottoman army. Kemalist elites or seculars trusted the army alot. Average Turks also had relative trust to the army to. Additionally, the military generally is always seen by average Turks as more trustworhy than other armed forces (police forces forexample). Personally i cant also explain this why so but in my humble opinion this is due to militaristic legacy coming from Turkish tradition. Now who are average Turks:
Seculars: Kemalists in everything
Practising Turks: Those who struggling for Islam (mindset + action)
Average Turks: Kemalist in mindset but has Islamic inclinations - fulfils their Islamic obligations. The majority of the Turks are in this category.
So far so good? If this part isnt understood well respected brothers and sisters, the next part and current situation in Turkey wont be understood.
Little Note: Im trying to write a brief summary of Islamic struggle in Turkey. Im skipping other political events during those times.
1960 - 1970: Successor of Menderes' party Justice Party founded in 1961 came into political scene. The party' first leader died in 1964 and the second leader of the party passed leadership to Demirel. Demirel won the election using what had happened to Menderes. However Demirel was modernist. He didnt have Islamic mindset. The military approved him didnt see him as a threat. In late 1960s we saw the rise of a Islamic party under Erbakan. We also saw the emergence of a nationalist party under Türkeş. Türkeş party (MHP) was more nationalistic than any other party that Turkey had seen. His party first emerged as fully nationalistic party. Contrary to what is known of MHP. MHP's inital ideology didnt had Islam, MHP added Islamic elements later but still they were ideologically had nationalistic line. Unlike what is thought of Turks were not nationalist minded. During WW1 and Turkish Independence War, Turks didnt fight those wars for nationalistic reasons but rather Turks fought them to protect Sultan and the Khalifate. When the republic was founded aaturk focused on younger generation as he knew he cant change the older generation. thats why ataturk in his days mostly focused on turk's older roots - to erase Turk's Islamic connection. MHP nationalist thought emerged in that time. Some may mention, "But Nationalism became in the late Ottoman era?" This is true however nationalistic thought in the late Ottoman erawas a 'intectual' movement. It didnt go down to the society neither was accepted. But due to brutal kemalist regime, nationalistic thought began to enter inside homes. ataturk is viewed even today by MHP as their first leader (before Türkeş). Despite efforts to eradicate Islam using several methods one was instilling nationalism, Turks generally didnt felt inclination towards full nationalistic movement as they were inclined towards Islam. As a result full nationalism concept failed, seeing this Türkeş introduced Islam (like helding Quran Majeed reading) to its nationalist party for political gains.
Erbakan was on the contrary had Islamic mindset. This is why famous Awliya like Shaikh Mehmet Zahid Korku (rahimahullah) supported him. Erbakan propagated Islamic lifestyle, islamic mindset. His supporters were not much than 10% but he did concern Turkish elite (seculars) as his party was closed multiple times. President Erdogan came out from his party but he wasnt like Erbakan as many wrongfully think. Erdoğan had and still has different views than Erbakan. I will discuss than later.
1970 - 1980: Due to ten years of right and left clashes, people being killed mercilessly for what they support (right or left). The military also stirred the clash between both parties as the military was reported to supply weapons to Türkeş nationalists (right). Due to turmoil in the country and 'lack of agreement' between politicans (Demirel and Ecevit) the army did coup lead by General Evren in 1980. The coup was sponsored by the US and it also openly admited by them as well. When Evren came to power the clash between both sided stopped in one day. Evren enjoyed such majority. His constutiton got acceptance by 92%. Evren banned all four parties. During that time, Turgut Özal emerged coming from World Bank. He was first under Evren government, responsible for the economy. Then the army had allowed other parties to enter into politics after few years later but still not previous ones (4 party) that had been banned. Özal's party competed with Evren's backed general. Evren had indirectly pointed him to be supported. But Özal won and with Özal we saw the dawn of a new political and economic order.
Özal brought liberal order, influenced by the events during that time in the world. Özal brought free economy regime which allowed many Turks to access to goods that were previously banned. Previously in Turkey, you werent allowed to carry a dolar in your pocket, otherwise you would be fined. Foreign goods such as Converse, jeans, cigarretes were sold in black market. Turkish economy was closed economy (or protectionist economy). Özal has specialized public companies. As a result Özal's policies, wealth started to flow to Turkey. Soon i will explain how im going to connect this point. Bare with me.
Coming back to Islamic struggle, Erbakan was outlawed from politics by Evren in 1980. He could enter into political scene till 1990s. Erbakan came much stronger than before however. His party had surprisingly won elections in the 1990s as a result of their strong grassroot organizations, forcing Demirel's canditate Ciller to form a collation with him. Ciller ruled for several years and when Erbakan to become prime minister, in short amount of time the army did digital coup on Erbakan, forcing him to resign. This is known as 28 February in Turkish history.
The Turkish Islamic struggle has been reshaped for several reasons: secular institutions, lack of access to authetic Ulama and authetic literature. In Turkey even now to be an Alim you have to go to Islamic Theology faculty to get Alim degree then you register to Diyanet and enter to a exam to become a Imaan, Muadhin and a Mufti. Islamic Theology faculties were nothing much than reproducing kemalist ideology. If one sees their older curriculum they will understand what i mean. The current condition is not much changed of these faculities as they still produce modern minded alims. The majority of the Turkish Ulama education goes back from these theology faculties even those Ulama who sound authetic as well. This has great impact on current Turkey. The Turkish Islamic struggle became slowly hallow losing its effect which previously there. As an example you would see Turks confusing what is Halal and what is Haram - Turkish woman protesting to enter to universities with hijab. (However though there were those who sacrificed their education for the sake of preserving their Deen but not everyone was like this.) The degrenation starting from 1923 continuing on 2010 manifested itself in different forms.
In 2002: Erdogan won the election. However previously Erdogan voiced several times that he wasnt continuation of Erbakan's party which was closed before 2000 and he had seperated himself from Erbakan's views. He even personally stated that he had removed the jacket of Mill görüş (Erbakan's views) from himself. Erdogan was modernist had pro-EU approach. He has picture with George Soros too. When he came to power, he continued Ozal's liberal policies and forced Turks to adopt to neoliberalist order under slum house removal projects. He had put thousands of families into debt and forced the woman to find a job to pay their debts to bank with interest. Unlike many think slum houses were significantly present in big cities: Istanbul, Ankara. Erdogan continued adopting to EU procedure as he had stated during his campaign. Erbakan in his last days was against Erdogan. He had said supporting Erdogan was supporting of Israel. In mid 2000 Erdogan uplifted the ban on Hijab for the public sector. Now this needs to be analyzed carefully. Uplifting Hijab sounds very nice but one needs to assess what uplifting Hijab brought in reality. This doesnt mean Hijab ban shouldnt have been lifted but the consequences it brought was heavy blow to Islamic struggle. Previously, those woman who were far from modernist ideology due to ban on Hijab found itself able to enter into secular institutions. Those women who could not work due to their Hijab was now allowed to work shoulder with man. In short, women became more modernized unlike previously. Also as latest update, you are not still allowed to wear hijab on work for private companies. Ladies working in some private companies especially cleaning companies cannot work with their hijab. Second, there is also mention of burqa ban being lifted however in Turkey Burqa is still banned in several locations and you cannot work in the public sector with a Burqa.
The problem is that reforms werent done properly (like in the Hagia Sofia example). There is always something missing in Islamic reforms done in Turkey. It always lacks something which causes consequences. This does not mean they should stay as banned but just that, the foundation wasnt already there, due to lack of access authetic Ulama, the reforms instead of contributing better created consequences. You have to be careful not to confuse this being not against bans. One may argue Erdogan was showing itself as modernist due to pressure from military, we will come to that.
In 2010, Erdogan shifted his policy towards Neo-Ottomanism. Neo-Ottomanism is an foreign policy concept but its actually present in the current ruling mindset of the government. Neo-Ottomanism on society level is to disguise returning to Ottoman traditions but strengthen secular mindset. The best example is Ertugrul, Osman series. Erdogan slowly removed the military and become the second powerful man on the history of Turkey after ataturk. Slowly slowly under the disguise of being 'benefactor' of Deen Erdogan enhanced neoliberalism (modernism) in the lives of Turks. He presented one image to his follower or in media but on behind doors he had negotiations with Israel for example. In 2018 Erdogan said "Islam needs to be upgraded (the word 'upgraded' erdogan meant was re-intepreating those views that were accepted by İjtihad. This is still problematic because, as a layman Muslim how can i trust such Ulama whose Islamic background goes to modernist faculties?)." This statement was said against an Alim whose words had become viral on the internet. He was wrongly accused of saying 'women should be thankful for being beaten up'. His words was taken out of context. Another incident was due to recent event which took place involving alawites (marking their homes) Erdogan had also called alawite (shias) as Muslims (naudubillah) saying that, nifaq is being done to (two) views of the Islam accused being a German project. (naudubillah). For Turkish speakers here is the actual quote: "Aynı dine, aynı peygambere inan kalpler arasında nifak tohumları ekiliyor. Alisiz Alevilik gibi kimi projelerin pohpohlanmasında bu senaryolar var. Alman devleti Alisiz Aleviliğe çok ciddi bedeller ödeyerek bunun tohumlarını ekmek istiyor."
These are few examples
Additionally unlike it is propagated you are still not allowed open up a madrasa under madrasa liences. It is still illegal in Turkey to open up a madrasa. You operate madrasas under different legal licenses. One is opening up 'research center' on Islam. Still there is no moon sightening system forexample. Ours Islamic dates are pre-estimated basically.
Turkey may sound Deendar but the problem is, the news dont reflect realities. Those who voted to CHP Imanoglu in recent munispality election was Deenidar districts such as Eyüp, Üsküdar, Fatih. You have to understand that things are very different in Turkey. News presentation is one thing, what is seen is something else... The choice is yours
Why Erdogan enjoys support from Deenidar despite his double standard?
The biggest answer is that, there is no good canditate than Erdogan that is why Deenidars feel, if erdogan goes CHP will do its older things. Akp had also used this setiment to its advantage. Every election you always see a video where seculars disrespecting Deen. You see this all the time. Infact it used by even now by political trolls. These videos arent wrong most of the time (some videos can be subject to manuplation also) but it prevents us from pressuring the government to make reforms. Thats why the government can do anything it wants with no opposition from the genuinely concerned practising Muslims. Thats actually helps Erdogan to implement his Neo Ottomanism ideology without serious critic.
Coming to answer to the second question: coming from Turkey's historical past, due to lack of proper Islamic foundation caused by brutal kemalist regime, slowly slowly Turks confused what is Haram and what is Halal. With wealth coming to Turkey in abudance, to make struggle for Deen has became harder. Second, females now very easy access to secular universities which shaped their mindset. Women now can come out from its homes working with shoulder to shoulder with men such that they could know also become MP's. Turkey lost its motivation on struggling for Deen. Those who were previously struggling for Deen were assimilated as resulted of modernist indoctrination introduced to them by education system and as a result they became supportive of the modernist mindset which had oppressed them. In Turkey its not about not being ready Islam anymore, its about how to gain back Islamic stuggle again?
Companies in Ankara’s defense industry lose access to lucrative technology know-how
The move had been widely expected since Turkey took delivery last year of the Russian S-400 surface-to-air missile defense system
19 July 2020
ANKARA: The removal of Turkey from the list of “global participants” on the US F-35 joint strike fighter program’s official website carries political significance in terms of showing the Pentagon’s determination to push its NATO ally to make a final decision about its controversial purchase of a Russian air defense system.
Turkey’s contribution to the F-35 fighter jets’ supply chain was suspended following its receipt of parts of the S-400 surface-to-air defense system last July.
But the system has not yet been made operational, although Turkey has also refused to give up the S-400 completely. It even tested its radar system in Ankara against some of its air force’s US-made F-16 fighter jets last November.
However, the activation of the S-400 missile system that was scheduled for April is still delayed. Turkey has also been banned by the US from ordering F-35s for its air force.
The only condition for Ankara to become a contributor again and feature in the F-35 list is to move the system outside the country because F-35s cannot coexist with a Russian intelligence gathering platform that might detect their stealth capabilities and harm the long-term security of the alliance by spying on the jets.
Turkey’s industrial engagement in the F-35 program brought a significant economic boost to the country, with 10 contributing companies supplying more than 900 parts worth about $12 billion.
Lockheed Martin, as the prime contractor on the F-35 program, and the US government had to find new suppliers for the parts that were previously manufactured by Turkish companies.
But Turkey was cited until recently as one of the nine principal contributors on the program’s official website along with the US, Australia, Canada, Denmark, Italy, Netherlands, Norway and the UK.
A retired senior official from Turkey’s Foreign Ministry believed the country would delay the operation of the S-400, worth $2.5 billion, for a lengthy period due to economic and regional challenges.
“Under deepening conditions of economic recession, Ankara will not risk facing potential US sanctions in case it operationalizes the controversial Russian system,” the official told Arab News. “Meanwhile, Turkish officials still have a slight hope to get credit opportunities from the US for overcoming its cash problems. It may force Ankara to think twice about not being eligible for sanctions.”
Can Kasapoglu, a defense analyst from the Center for Economics and Foreign Policy Studies, said the country’s exclusion from the F-35 program was a great loss for the Turkish defense ecosystem.
“Many aerospace firms were involved in the project with lucrative technology know-how gains and co-production opportunities,” he told Arab News. “All these achievements were perfectly in league with Turkey's defense modernization priorities.”
US senators are divided over whether they should downplay the S-400 issue, or further penalize Turkey over its Russia-inclined security reinforcement choices.
In a bid to alleviate the impasse between the two countries and get the Russian system out of Turkey, a US lawmaker proposed last week that the US buy Turkey’s S-400 through an amendment to the 2021 National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA).
This scenario, which was applied in 1997 by purchasing Moldova’s Russian-made Fulcrum fighter jets to keep them away from Iran, enables Ankara to take part in the F-35 program, but will at the same time antagonize Russia and harm the regional balance in Syria and Libya.
To alleviate Russian concerns about such a scenario, Turkey has pledged not to disclose any sensitive information it has related to the S-400 air defence system, as Defence Industries head Ismail Demir announced on Friday during a panel discussion.
However US Senate Foreign Relations Committee chairman, Jim Risch, introduced another harsher amendment that would mandate President Donald Trump’s administration to impose measures from the Countering America's Adversaries Through Sanctions Act (CAATSA) on Turkey within 30 days of the NDAA adoption because, under CAATSA, any nation procuring defense items from Russia should be subject to sanctions.
“The removal of Turkey from the list of global participants under the US’ F-35 joint strike fighter program’s official website is, as we say in Turkish, announcing what is already known, which is that Turkey is no longer part of the F-35 program,” Ozgur Unluhisarcikli, Ankara office director of the German Marshall Fund of the United States, told Arab News.
He said that the move did not, however, prevent Turkey’s readmission to the program if and when the S-400 problem was resolved.
How come aspects of external Sunnah (long beard, Hijab, Miswak etc) are either missing or not emphasised?
How come all commandments relevant to "societal and communal issues" like Jihad, Khilafah and to a lesser extent like Moonsighting are missing from this manual?
Is there are a once upon a time original version which is more complete and thorough? Does it get edited and condensed by the Government?
What I am trying to say is that the great Hanafi Scholar Ibn Abideen (RA) was Ottoman and much of his Fiqh is missing from this book while the Indians took it all and compiled it as "Bahishti Zewar" .
Is there a movement to return back to the complete Hanafi Fiqh of the great Imams of Hanafi Madhab during the Ottomans. Like this book of Menstruation by the great Imam Birgivi in its original form is just outstanding for its time, he had charts and all sorts in 1500s...
Small correction brother Muadh..
May need confirming but I believe the original treatise by Imam Birgivi (Rahimahullah) was very short. I believe the charts in the present book are the work of Ustadha Hedaya Hartford and Ustadh Ashraf Meneeb
The word "müdana," which means asking for favors or bowing before people, is an old term unknown by the younger generation. It is used in a sentence as "müdana etmek," to ask for a favor or to bow before people, and in another context, "müdanasız olmak," the term can carry the connotation of having no debt to anyone. The word is used in the context of someone trying to ingratiate oneself or be accepted. On the other hand, "Müdanasızlık" means standing on your own feet without needing anyone else, without feeling the necessity to make explanations, not trying to seem like a good person and never bowing before people.
This never-bowing-to-people attitude might be the most important thing needed for the road to knowledge and thinking. Understanding and thought can only be improved by not bowing to people under any circumstance and not changing what you think because you are afraid of someone else's influence.
From time to time, those scientists and thinkers who did not allow themselves to bow down to other individuals have paid the price for this attitude. Influential people generally regard themselves as smarter than everyone else and they think that what power dictates means reality itself. Thus, they do not care about the prestige of thinkers, artists and scientists and demand that what they know be accepted as the truth, which makes it harder for thought to stand with power.
It doesn't always have to be like that. States that feel secure have always respected these scholars. For example, scholars who did not share the same idea as the sultan or viziers in the Ottoman state were never oppressed; contrarily, they were awarded or at least allowed to work freely. However, in times of chaos, folding under pressure became a common attitude, and those unyielding scholars went through trouble.
Son of a scholar
Imam Birgivi, whose father was also a "mudarris," (a type of professor) was born in Balıkesir on March 27, 1523, into a scholar's family. His name was Muhammed, while his epithet was Takiyyuddin. His father Pir Ali was both a mudarris and a member of "zawiyah" (small Islamic monastery). Knowledge and wisdom go hand in hand in Birgivi's thought, which was a family tradition.
Birgivi took his first lessons from his father. He recited Quran and took courses in Arabic and logic. His father sent him to Istanbul so that he could learn more while he was still young. He went to the Haseki Madrasah in Istanbul and was taught by many important scholars. After he finished his education and was authorized to teach, he began working as a "mülazım" (assistant) with Abdurrahman Efendi, who is better known as Red Mollah.
Then, Birgivi was recruited as a military "qassam,"someone who carries out civil servants' work related to inheritance law, in Edirne with the support of his teacher. This is quite interesting because we know that Birgivi gave back the money he earned from this. What was the problem? Was it being a qassam or a civil servant? Maybe both of them were problematic. At least, there was something wrong in Birgivi's mind.
While working as a qassam, Birgivi also gave lessons. He advised people to comply with the Quran and Sunnah in his sermons. Since he witnessed the daily lives of people, superstitions, old wives' tales and bid'ahs (innovations that emerged outside of the Prophet Muhammed's teachings after his death), Birgivi battled these things.
Waging war against corruption
When Birgivi was reacting to things coming from non-Islamic sources and melting into people's lives, he did not skip bribery, corruption and favoritism for the children of the rich. His diagnosis was that an illness was prowling around society. He wanted to work on this illness through and through and find a cure.
As an ardent preacher and influential scholar, Birgivi never ever bowed to anyone. In one case, he didn't even listen to the greatest scholar of his age, Sheik al-Islam Abussuud Efendi. They had a major conflict on the issue of foundations. While Abussuud allowed granting money instead of assets to foundations, Birgivi wrote a book refuting the idea. What a pity that this Arabic work has not been translated into Turkish.
Birgivi objected to granting money seemingly for two reasons. First, this was against Islamic tradition. And second, money is not like an asset, it is open and prone to speculation and interest. Abussuud also allowed money to foundations, giving proof from Islamic tradition, and said that if granting money was not allowed, the rich would not do charitable work and poor people would suffer.
Let us leave the content of this issue to Islamic jurists. What matters for us is the personality of Imam Birgivi.
From lodge to madrasah
No one pays much attention to Birgivi's short experience with a dervish lodge compared to the famous story about Imam Ghazali's decision on Sufism as a result of a 10-year-search. Sufi-lovers enjoy regarding him as a lodge member. Those who have a problematic relationship with Sufism generally refer to Birgivi's book "Tarikat-ı Muhammediye" (The Order of Muhammadiyyah) where he defended Sunnah and opposed some lodge and order practices.
Neither side is completely right. Birgivi was not against Sufism and never was a typical dervish, either. He found a middle course and became mudarris for the newly built Birgi Madrasah. This madrasah, which gave Birgivi his name, became his place to gather people. He gave lessons at this madrasah until he passed away.
While he was raising students, he never quit summoning people to the truth. It is possible to liken Birgivi to non-state, individual scholars of Sunnah who were seen mostly in the first period of the Ottomans rather than official "ulema" (a body of Muslim scholars who are recognized as having specialist knowledge of Islamic sacred law and theology).
His attitude also relied on his profitless work. He was generally square on the account with the state. Thus, nothing could overshadow his courage. He showed no fear in telling Ataullah Efendi, Selim II's teacher, that his name was involved in corruption and advised him to take the right path. He is said to have come to Istanbul in his older age and to warn Sokullu Mehmet Pasha about bribery, bid'ah and favoritism.
Birgivi and his attitude have been approached from very different points of view throughout the 20th century. Mehmet Ali Ayni dignifies Birgivi as exemplary of both knowledge and virtue, while some Turkish historians, writing on the Ottomans in foreign languages, define Birgivi as a reactionary.
Now, the question is this: Was Imam Birgivi a reactionary or a genius sensing the coming disaster? My opinion is the latter. Imam Birgivi showed up in a moment of moral decay in the Ottoman Empire and set an example of supreme Muslim character in both his work and personality. The reason why he was never forgotten through the ages and is now seen as a saint must be this supreme attitude.
From the 1630s to the 1680s the Kadızadeli movement dominated the political scene in the Ottoman capital of Istanbul, the latter part of this period coinciding with the Ottomans’ greatest expansion of their land empire. Based on the teachings of Birgivi, and with clear influences from Ibn Taymiyya, the Kadızadeli movement worked to eradicate religious innovations, sometimes through the use of force. However, the Ottoman defeat at Vienna in 1683 marked the political downfall of the Kadızadelis in Istanbul and elsewhere in Ottoman lands. Yet within 60 years the movement of Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhāb emerged in Najd with striking similarities. Both movements voiced strictures against religious innovations, particularly regarding seeking the intercession of the dead at grave sites, for which they accused their opponents of unbelief (kufr), and both were willing to use force if necessary to establish their opinions. This paper traces the historical and scholarly links between these two important movements, and includes a detailed examination of the scholarly credentials of Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhāb. This fuller contextualization should enable a clearer understanding of the religious climate in which Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhāb started his movement.
Brother Muadh Khan your question is very important and makes one ask why Ilmihal books are published in such shallow manner? Personally i dont know the reason why they are like this. I only this much that, they are many publication house who publish Ilmihal. Im not aware about the Fazilet Publication. It is only this publication house or others are the same as well Wallahu Alam. Im sorry im not able to help you.
Under Neo - Ottomanism, Ottoman works become more subject to research and study. One of the leading institutions who are translating Ottoman Ulama's works is the National Manuscript Institution. However i personally like to caution my brothers and sisters about this: These translations are done by academicians whose authenticity is very doubt. There are only few institutions that teach Ottoman Turkish: Islamic faculties, Literature and History departments. Islamic Faculties conditions didnt change so much. they still produce modern minded Alims. Any translation done from such academicians of these faculties is very doubtful. Most Ottoman Ulama's works are in famous libraries in Istanbul. Gradutes arent capable in translating such works and they shouldnt be also. Because these books are very detailed require deep understanding of Islam.
The answer to the question on the famous works of Ottoman Ulama, the problem in Turkey is that, (i havent come across their works in modern Turkish although Ottoman Ulama's work may be published) who is translating them? What is their level of autheticity basically. I personally know a work published by Islamic Faculty professor having translated Hujjatullah al Baligha of Hadhrat Shah Waliullah rahimahullah. So called 'Islamic' academician whose foundation goes back to turkish Islamic Tehology faculty, never seen the door of a madrasa who doesnt have acceptable Alim qualification translating such depth work is very worrysome.
Brother Muadh i personally say from my own side (some Turks may not agree with me), we Turks need foreign Ulama and we Turks cannot do this on our own as we are very far behind Islamic world. When we can communicate with the world better and without any restrictions we should reach out to other Ulama.
Little side note: Bahisti Zewar is very comprehensive manual Ilmihals which i know of are not the in same level. Its better not to compare them with each other (although i do understand simple comprasion needed for non Turks.)
This cannot be undone and I am sure it will be greatly appreciated.
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