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#1 [Permalink] Posted on 24th February 2013 19:02
Taqdeer (Fate)

Belief in Taqdeer is a principle article of the Islamic faith. This is often a misunderstood concept giving rise to many unanswered questions such as:

a) If destiny has already decreed the final abode of a person then to what avail are his deeds or his supplications to Allah?

b) Many narrations refer to certain actions as a cause of increase in ones wealth, lifespan and also a means of averting calamities. For example Thawban reports that the Messenger of Allah said, "Verily a man is deprived of a provision (that was written for him) because of a sin that he commits; only supplication changes destiny; and only righteousness can increase the life span." (Nasai, Ibn Majah) How may this be when everything has been preordained through destiny?

I shall attempt to explain the concept of Taqdeer in a simple and categorical manner.

Firstly, the purpose of mankind's creation is that we worship Allah the Almighty and we show obedience to Him. Allah states in the Holy Qur'an,

"I created the Jinn and humankind only that they might worship me." (51:56)

Secondly, this world serves as a test of our obedience towards our creator and so that He may reward us in the next world accordingly. Allah states in the Holy Qur'an, "Verily we created man from a drop of mingled sperm, in order to try him: so we gave him (the gifts), of hearing and sight. We showed him the way: whether he be grateful or ungrateful (rests on his will)." (76:2-3)

Thirdly, the notion that this world is a test warrants that the subjects being tested possess free-will or else there would be no meaning to such a test.

With the above in mind the concept of destiny may further be explained by understanding destiny to be Allah's knowledge of how the individual is going to use his free-will rather than a pre-decided factor being enforced upon him without giving him a fair chance. Consider the following example: An appointment is arranged between two individuals. The first arrives before time and waits for the second; he then comments that the second will arrive late as always. He bases his prediction on previous experience and the lax nature of the second individual. This statement does not restrict or bound the latter's ability to attend on time in any way, it is merely an assertion. Similarly, when Allah the Almighty informs us, through his infinite knowledge, of his knowledge of our precise actions and our consequent abode it should not be perceived to be a compelling decision against our free will, but rather only his knowledge of our decisions.

To summarise, every individual has been given free-will and should use it to work towards attaining the pleasure of Allah and that Allah has full knowledge of the individual's actions; past, present and future.

With regards to the second misconception, the possibility of increase in ones wealth, lifespan and aversion of calamities despite destiny being pre-ordained, Allah says, "Allah blots out what he wills and conforms (what he wills): and with Him is the mother of the book (i.e. book of conclusive records)." ( 13:39)

Commenting on the above verse Mujahid said, "During Laylatul-Qadr (night of the Decrees), Allah decided what provisions and disasters will occur in the next year. He then brings forward or back (or blots out) whatever He wills." (Ibn Katheer)

Scholars derive from the above that destiny is of two types:

a) Muallaq (revocable):

This destiny is written on 'The Preserved Tablet' (al Lawh al Mahfoodh), and is subject to change and alteration through the omission or commission of certain deeds. For example: the lifespan of a person is originally 50 years, but may increase to 60 years if he performs the ritual of Hajj, or a certain calamity is to befall him unless he averts it by spending in charity. This is the destiny refereed to in the aforementioned narration.

b) Mubram (irrevocable):

This destiny denotes the eternal knowledge of Allah. It encompasses the final result of the Muallaq destiny i.e. our choice of actions, their consequences and every precise detail of our lives. This definite knowledge of Allah is not subject to change or alter even slightly and is exclusive to Allah only.

In the light of the above the following may be derived:

Our supplications do change destiny and are of much avail.
Good deeds are a source of increase in ones sustenance, and avert calamities.
Sins result in a decrease in ones sustenance, and invite calamities.

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#2 [Permalink] Posted on 26th February 2013 11:38

Q796: A question regading Taqdeer

Question

Is it correct to say Allah SWT has destined our good and bad deeds for us in accordance with his knowledge because he knew what we would choose?

Answer

Firstly, one should bear in mind that the Mas’ala of Taqdeer (Fate) is not a Mas’ala that one should indulge into and try to understand through logic.

Imam Zurqani R.A quotes Ibnul Sam’aani in his Sharh of Muwatta.

قَالَ ابْنُ السَّمْعَانِيِّ: سَبِيلُ مَعْرِفَةِ هَذَا الْبَابِ التَّوْقِيفُ مِنَ الْكِتَابِ وَالسُّنَّةِ دُونَ مَحْضِ الْقِيَاسِ وَالْعَقْلِ، فَمَنْ عَدَلَ عَنِ التَّوْقِيفِ ضَلَّ وَتَاهَ فِي بِحَارِ الْحَيْرَةِ وَلَمْ يَبْلُغْ شِفَاءً وَلَا يَطْمَئِنُّ بِهِ الْقَلْبُ ; لِأَنَّ الْقَدَرَ سِرٌّ منْ أَسْرَارِ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى اخْتُصَّ بِهِ الْخَبِيرُ الْعَلِيمُ وَضَرَبَ دُونَهُ الْأَسْتَارَ، وَحَجَبَهُ عَنْ عُقُولِ الْخَلْقِ وَمَعَارِفِهِمْ لِمَا عَلِمَهُ مِنَ الْحِكْمَةِ، فَلَمْ يَعْلَمْهُ نَبِيٌّ مُرْسَلٌ وَلَا مَلَكٌ مُقَرَّبٌ، وَقِيلَ: الْقَدَرُ يَنْكَشِفُ لَهُمْ إِذَا دَخَلُوا الْجَنَّةَ وَلَا يَنْكَشِفُ قَبْلَ دُخُولِهَا. (شرح الزرقاني 4/382)

He says, “The path to understand the concept of Taqdeer is to use Quran and Sunnah and not to use ones intellect and ration. Whosoever moves away from the Quran and Sunnah in this matter has gone astray and is wandering in the oceans of confusion. He will never reach a conclusion and his heart will never be content. Because Taqdeer is a secret from the secrets of Allah Ta’ala which He has kept to Himself and has placed a curtain over it. He has hidden it from the understanding of his creation, because of some wisdom which only He knows. No Prophet or Angel has been let on this secret. Some Ulema have said that the secret of Taqdeer will be uncovered when the believers enter Jannah.

The Sahabah were once engaged in a conversation regarding Taqdeer. When the Prophet of Allah Salla Allahu Alayhi Wa Sallam heard it, his face became red with anger, and he forbid them from talking about Taqdeer.

To understand, this much is enough that whatever action a human does, he does not do it because Allah forced him to do it. Rather he was going to do it, and Allah knew that this was what he will be doing out of his own choice and will.

Besides that, whenever these thoughts come to you, recite Laa hawla wa Laa Quwwata Illa Billah, and think about something else. Shaytan places these thoughts in ones mind to stop him from doing Amal.

And Allah is All Knowing

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#3 [Permalink] Posted on 26th February 2013 11:49

“Nothing can alter taqdeer but dua.”

Hanafi Fiqh > Askimam.org

Question

I have read a hadith thats says some thing to the effect ““Nothing can alter taqdeer but dua.” please could you provide me a reference for this hadith if it is authentic.

 
Answer

This Hadith is found in Jaami Tirmidhi (pg.35), Babu laylatul qadr ilaa duaa

Fate is something which is predestined. In this Hadith ‘That nothing repels fate but du’aa (supplication)’. This Hadith mentions du’aa, to show its importance that if anything could stop fate, it would be du’aa. Du’aa is a very important tool for the believer. The Sahaaba had their needs fulfilled through du’aa. May Allah bless us so that we turn to Him in every condition good or bad.

and Allah Ta’ala Knows Best

Mufti Ebrahim Desai

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#4 [Permalink] Posted on 26th February 2013 11:50
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#5 [Permalink] Posted on 26th February 2013 11:58

Taqdeer

Hanafi Fiqh > DarulIftaBirmingham

Is it true that destiny and fate of every person is predetermined from the time when he enters into the ovary of his/her mother to his/her last breath (his/her death). Is true that destiny and fate are pre determined and regardless of whether one works hard or not nothing can be changed and even the smallest of the things, the smallest happenings, the smallest of the decisions made by that person even the minutest things that no one even cares about are pre determined. So if everything is pre determined and there is absolutely no chance of changing the destiny by any way or by any means then what will be the correct tafsir of this verse in the HOLY QURAN which is translated like a human being/person will only get what he tries for.

In the name of Allah, the most Beneficent, the most Merciful.

Answer

Saaiduna Jabir Radiallahu Anhu narrates that the Prophet of Allah Sallallahu Alahi Wasalam said “You can never be a Muslim (believer) as long as you do not believe in Taqdeer, in it’s good and its bad to such an extent that whatever is to happen will be warded off and whatever is not to happen will not occur”. (Sunan Tirmizi p.36 v.2)

Saaiduna Abu Darda Radiallahu Anhu narrates that the Prophet of Allah Sallallahu Alahi Wasalam has said that Allah has already pre destined five things for all people: age, sustenance, deeds, place of burial and final salvation or condemnation. (Musnad Ahmad)

Saaiduna Abdullah Ibn Umar Radiallahu Anhu narrates that the Prophet of Allah Sallallahu Alahi Wasalam has said that all things are subject to destiny, even wisdom and stupidity. (Sahih Muslim)

Accepting Imaan and faith on Taqdeer is an integral part of being a believer.

With regards to your question, the purpose of mankind’s creation is that we worship Allah (SWA) and we show obedience to Him. Allah states in the Holy Qur’an,

“I created the Jinn and humankind only that they might worship me.” (Surah Azzariyyat v.36)

Furthermore, this world serves as a test of our obedience towards our creator and so that He may reward us in the next world accordingly. Allah states in the Holy Qur’an, “Verily we created man from a drop of mingled sperm, in order to try him: so we gave him (the gifts), of hearing and sight. We showed him the way: whether he be grateful or ungrateful (rests on his will).” (Surah Dahar v.2 -v.3

Also the notion that this world is a test warrants that the subjects being tested possess free will or else there would be no meaning to such a test.

With the above in mind the concept of destiny may further be explained by understanding destiny to be Allah’s knowledge of how the individual is going to use his free-will rather than a pre-decided factor being enforced upon him without giving him a fair chance. Consider the following example: An appointment is arranged between two individuals. The first arrives before time and waits for the second; he then comments that the second will arrive late as always. He bases his prediction on previous experience and the lax nature of the second individual. This statement does not restrict or bound the latter’s ability to attend on time in any way, it is merely an assertion. Similarly, when Allah (SWA) informs us, through his infinite knowledge, of his knowledge of our precise actions and our consequent abode it should not be perceived to be a compelling decision against our free will, but rather only his knowledge of our decisions.

To summarise, every individual has been given free will and should use it to work towards attaining the pleasure of Allah and that Allah has full knowledge of the individual’s actions; past, present and future.

With regards to your question on the interpretation of the verse ‘And that a man does not deserve but (the reward) of his own effort’ (Surah Najm v.39), the summary of the verse is that just as on person shall carry the burden of sin of any other, so shall he benefit only from the good that he himself has done.

It is not the case that a person performs a righteous act instead of someone else and the latter is absolved of his responsibility. For example, if a person performs the obligatory prayers and fasts on behalf of somebody else the latter will not be absolved of his religious duties and obligations. He is still liable for them. (Maariful Quran p.230 v.8)

Finally, it should be bourn in mind that to discuss or talk about Taqdeer was not the practice of the Salaf.

Saaiduna Abu Hurairah Radiallahu Anhu narrates that the Prophet of Allah Sallallahu Alahi Wasalam came to us when we were arguing about Taqdeer. He was angry and his face became so red that it looked as if pomegranate seeds had been burst upon his cheeks. He then said “Is this what you were commanded to do? Or was it for this purpose that I was sent to you? Your predecessors perished only when they argued about this matter. I adjure you, I adjure you, not to argue about it.” ’ (Sunan Ibn Majah p.9 v.1)

Saaidah Aaisha Radiallahu Anha narrates that the Prophet of Allah Sallallahu Alahi Wasalam said “He who discusses any aspect of Tadeer will be questioned about it on the Day of Judgement but he who does not discuss it will not be questioned about it.” (Sunan Ibn Majah p.9 v.1)

Only Allah Knows Best

Mohammed Tosir Miah

Darul Ifta Birmingham


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#6 [Permalink] Posted on 25th October 2013 03:08
Narrated 'Hz Ali رضي الله عنه: While we were in a funeral procession in Baqi Al-Gharqad, RasulAllah sal lal lahu alaihi wasallam came n sat down, n we sat around him. He had a small stick in his hand n he bent his head n started scraping the ground with it. He s.a.w then said, "There is none among you, n no created soul but has his place written for him either in Paradise or in the Hell-Fire, n also has his happy or miserable fate (in the Hereafter) written for him." A man said, "O Allah's Apostle! Shall we depend upon what is written for us n give up doing (good) deeds? For whoever among us is destined to be fortunate (in the Hereafter), will join the fortunate people n whoever among us is destined to be miserable will do such deeds as are characteristic of the people who are destined to misery." RasulAllah sal lal lahu alaihi wasallam said, "Those who are destined to be happy (in the Hereafter) will find it easy n pleasant to do the deeds characteristic of those destined to happiness, while those who are to be among the miserable (in the Hereafter), will find it easy to do the deeds characteristic of those destined to misery." Then he recited: 'As for him who gives (in charity) n keeps his duty to Allah n believes in the Best reward from Allah swt, We will make smooth for him the path of ease. But he who is a Greedy miser n thinks himself self sufficient, an gives the lie to the Best reward from Allah swt we will make smooth for him the path for evil.' (92.5-10) (bukhari, Book #60, Hadith #473)
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#7 [Permalink] Posted on 25th October 2013 03:12
Regarding this hadis one of my elders taught me a simple dua,'' O Allah, I'm very weak in iman. I've no amal to please you or protect myself from hell fire.
O My Lord! If my name is written among the ppl of hell fire, I beg you with folded hands to shower your mercy upon this mean n worst sinner. Indeed, You are merciful n Compassionate. O My Lord! I beg you to write my name among the ppl of Jannah.
I've no quality of a momin but My Allah! you are my Lord. I know that I'm dirty n a corrupted man but whosoever I'm, but a slaves of yours. O Merciful Lord! Forgive my sins. Ameen
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#8 [Permalink] Posted on 25th October 2013 07:23
Arfatzafar wrote:
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Salam

Awesome dua akhii, would you by any chance have the Arabic of this dua ?

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#9 [Permalink] Posted on 25th October 2013 11:30
Assalam Alaikum w.w.

Arif Billah Hazrat Maulana Hakeem Muhammed Akhtar sahab رحمة الله عليه said in a bayan that ' This Mas'ala was beautifully explained by his Shaikh Hazrat Maulana Shah Muhammed Ahmed sahab Partapgarhi رحمة الله عليه that Taqdeer is very simple.. its is but the Ilm of Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) and not the Amr of Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) .. that Allah (Rabbul izzat)) has the ilm of what each and everyone of us from Adam (alaihis salam) to the last man standing on earth shall do.. and that has been written on Lauh e mahfuz.

He gave an example that suppose the electricity department issues an order to a particular factory as not to switch on the fan.. that people are working near it.. so if someone violates the order and switches it on.. the electricty department will not be blamed for being the source of Electricity .. but the person who has violated the order shall be held accountable..

The Electricity board cannot shut off the power lines to all.. as the whole city depends on it.. just for the sake of some factory workers. That the board has a greater responsibility of running the city.. and gives out orders in advance on the usage of electricity and its hazards as well.. '

wa Assalam..
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#10 [Permalink] Posted on 15th November 2013 19:55
User Invalidum wrote:
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Good example Brother.

I invite you to draw a straight line on a paper put in front of you.Mark a point on that straight line as present.Obviously the line behind the point marked is past and ahead of the mark is future.Now as 'you' can see clearly the present past and future on the straight line put in front of you....So does Allah swt 'knows' our past,present and future.In other words,what he have done in future Allah knows it....and has written it.....So 'Taqdeer' is the record if our own deeds 'known' to Allah swt....though 'we' are not aware what we will do in future.

To put it more simply :it is not the written script we follow,it is what we have already done which is recorded.

This also solves the puzzle of قدر and جبر

والله اعلم
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#11 [Permalink] Posted on 15th November 2013 19:58
Sorry,in the 4th line,a correction is needed "What WE have done in future Allah knows it".....
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#12 [Permalink] Posted on 15th November 2013 20:19
joy wrote:
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I may not be good in drawing lines.. but good analogy Masha Allah.. :-)
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#13 [Permalink] Posted on 15th November 2013 20:30
dr76 wrote:
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Not even straight lines ? Strange....!
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