Friday has many distinguishing features and virtues that Allaah has bestowed upon this day and not others.
It was narrated that Abu Hurayrah رضي الله عنه and Hudhayfah رضي الله عنه said: The Messenger of Allaah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said: "Allaah led those who came before us away from Friday (Jumu'ah). The Jews had Saturday, and the Christians had Sunday. Then Allaah brought us and Allaah guided us to Friday. So there is Friday, Saturday and Sunday, and thus they will follow us on the Day of Resurrection. We are the last of the people of this world but we will be the first on the Day of Resurrection, and we will be dealt with before all others."
[Narrated by Muslim, 856]
It was narrated from Aws ibn Aws رضي الله عنه that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said: "The best of your days is Friday (Jumu'ah). On that day Adam (alayhis-sallam) was created; on that day he died; on that day the Trumpet will be blown and on that day all of creation will swoon. So send a great deal of blessings upon me, for your blessings will be shown to me." They said, "O Messenger of Allaah, how will our blessings upon you be shown to you when you have turned to dust?" He said, "Allaah has forbidden the earth to consume the bodies of the Prophets, عليهم الصلاة والسلام - peace be upon them." [Narrated by Abu Dawood, 1047; classed as saheeh by Ibn al-Qayyim رحمه الله in his comments on Sunan Abi Dawood]
It was narrated that Abu Hurayrah (رضي الله عنه) said: The Messenger of Allaah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said: "The best day on which the sun rises is Friday (Jumu'ah). On it Adam was created, on it he was admitted to Paradise and on it he was expelled therefrom." [Narrated by Muslim, 1410]
This hadeeth includes some of the reasons why Friday is regarded as special.
Al-Nawawi رحمة اللہ علیه said: Al-Qaadi 'Iyaad رحمة اللہ علیه said: The apparent meaning is that these virtues do not mean that Friday is regarded as special because Adam (alayhis-sallam - peace be upon him) was expelled on a Friday and the Hour will begin on a Friday. Rather it is meant to explain what momentous events took place and will take place on this day, so that people will make the most of this day to do righteous deeds, so as to attain the mercy of Allaah and ward off His punishment.
It was narrated that Abu Lubaabah ibn 'Abd al-Mundhir رضي الله عنه said: The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said: "Friday is the master of days, and the greatest of them before Allaah. It is greater before Allaah than the day of al-Adha and the day of al-Fitr. It has five characteristics: on this day Allaah created Adam, on it He sent Adam down to the earth, on it Allaah caused Adam to die, on it there is a time when a person does not ask Allaah for anything but He gives it to him, so long as he does not ask for anything haraam (forbidden), and on it the Hour will begin. There is no angel who is close to Allaah, no heaven, no earth, no wind, no mountain and no sea that does not fear Friday." [Narrated by Ibn Maajah, 1084]
Al-Sanadi رحمة اللہ علیه said: "They fear Friday" means they fear the onset of the Hour. This indicates that all created beings are aware of the days and they know that the Day of Resurrection will come on a Friday (Jumu'ah).
The virtues of this day include the following:
1 - On it is Salaat al-Jumu'ah (Friday prayer), which is the best of prayer.
Allaah سبحانه و تعالى says:
"O you who believe (Muslims)! When the call is proclaimed for the Salaah (prayer) on Friday (Jumu'ah prayer), come to the remembrance of Allaah [Jumu'ah religious talk (Khutbah) and Salaah (prayer)] and leave off business (and every other thing). That is better for you if you did but know!" [al-Jumu'ah 62:9]
Muslim (233) narrated from Abu Hurayrah (رضي الله عنه) that the Messenger of Allaah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said: "The five daily prayers and from one Jumu'ah to the next is an expiation for whatever sins come in between them, so long as one does not commit a major sin."
2 - Praying Fajr in congregation on Fridays is the best prayer that the Muslim can pray during the week.
It was narrated that Ibn 'Umar (رضي الله عنهما) said: The Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said: "The best prayer before Allaah is Fajr prayer on Friday in congregation." [Narrated by al-Bayhaqi in Shu'ab al-Eemaan]
One of the special features of Fajr prayer on Friday is that it is Sunnah to recite Soorat al-Sajdah in the first rak'ah and Soorat al-Insaan in the second.
It was narrated from Abu Hurayrah (رضي الله عنه) that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) used to recite in Fajr prayer in Fridays Soorat al-Sajdah (32) in the first rak'ah and Soorat al-Insaan (76) in the second. [Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 851; Muslim, 880]
Al-Haafiz Ibn Hajar رحمة اللہ علیه said: It was said that the reason why these two soorahs are recited is because they mention the creation of Adam and what will happen on the Day of Resurrection, because that will come to pass on a Friday.
3 - Whoever dies during the day or night of Friday, Allaah will protect him from the trial of the grave.
It was narrated that 'Abd-Allaah ibn 'Amr رضي الله عنه said: The Messenger of Allaah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said: "There is no Muslim who dies during the day of Friday or the night of Friday but Allaah will protect him from the trial of the grave."
[Narrated by al-Tirmidhi, 1074]
These are some of the virtues of Friday. We ask Allaah to help us to please Him.