"That home of the Hereafter (i.e., Jannah), We shall assign to those who rebel not against the truth with pride and oppression in the land nor do mischief by committing crimes. And the good end is for the Muttaqun (the pious and righteous persons).'' (28:83)
"And walk not on earth with conceit and arrogance.'' (17:37)
"And turn not your face away from men with pride, nor walk in insolence through the earth. Verily, Allah likes not any arrogant boaster.'' (31:18)
"Verily, Qarun (Korah) was of Musa's (Moses) people, but he behaved arrogantly towards them. And We gave him of the treasures, that of which the keys would have been a burden to a body of strong men. Remember when his people said to him: `Do not exult (with riches, being ungrateful to Allah). Verily, Allah likes not those who exult (with riches, being ungrateful to Allah...(up to)... So We caused the earth to swallow him and his dwelling place.'' (28:76-81)
`Abdullah bin Mas`ud (radiallahu anh) reported: The Prophet (salallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) said, "He who has, in his heart, an ant's weight of arrogance will not enter Jannah.'' Someone said: "A man likes to wear beautiful clothes and shoes?'' Messenger of Allah (salallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) said, "Allah is Beautiful, He loves beauty. Arrogance means ridiculing and rejecting the Truth and despising people.'' [Muslim]
Salamah bin Al-Akwa` (radiallahu anh) reported: A man ate in the presence of Messenger of Allah (salallahu alayhi wa sallam) with his left hand. He (salallahu alayhi wa sallam) said, "Eat with your right hand.'' He said: "I cannot.'' Thereupon he (the Prophet (salallahu alayhi wa sallam)) said, "May you never be able to do that.'' It was arrogance that prevented him from doing it, and he could not raise it (the right hand) up to his mouth afterwards. [Muslim]
Harithah bin Wahab (radiallahu anh) reported: Messenger of Allah (salallahu alayhi wa sallam) said, "Shall I not inform you about the inmates of Hell? It is every violent, impertinent and proud person.'' [Al-Bukhari and Muslim]
Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri (radiallahu anh) reported: The Prophet (salallahu alayhi wa sallam) said, "There was a dispute between Hell and Jannah, and Hell said: `The haughty and proud are in me.' The Jannah said: `In me are the weak and the humble.' Thereupon Allah, the Exalted, judged between them saying: `You the Jannah are My Mercy, and through you I shall show mercy to those whom I wish.' (And addressing the Hell) He said: `You are My punishment to punish whom I wish amongst My slaves, and each one of you will have its fill.''' [Muslim]
Abu Hurairah (radiallahu anh) reported: Messenger of Allah (salallahu alayhi wa sallam) said, "On the Day of Resurrection, Allah will not look at him who trails his lower garment out of pride.'' [Al-Bukhari and Muslim]
The garment which man wears to cover the lower half of his body is called Izar in Arabic. Hence pyjamas, trousers, Shalwar and Tahband will be taken as Izar. Messenger of Allah (salallahu alayhi wa sallam) has emphatically said that Izar should remain above the ankle of men as its dragging down signifies arrogance (see below)(also see: Prohibition Of Wearing Trousers Below The Ankles (Isbal). Indeed it displays the attitude of the haughty whose grim fate can be seen in this Hadith.
Abu Hurairah (radiallahu anh) reported: The Prophet (salallahu alayhi wa sallam) said, "What is below the ankles of a lower garment is condemned to the Fire (Hell).'' [Al-Bukhari]
Abu Hurairah (radiallahu anh) reported: Messenger of Allah (salallahu alayhi wa sallam) said to a man who was performing Salat while his lower garment was trailing, "Go and perform your Wudu' again.'' That man went and came back having performed it. The Messenger of Allah (salallahu alayhi wa sallam) said (again), "Go and perform your Wudu'.'' Someone present said to Messenger of Allah (salallahu alayhi wa sallam): "O Messenger of Allah! You ask him to perform his Wudu' and then you kept silent (without saying the reason for it).'' He (salallahu alayhi wa sallam) said, "He performed Salat while his lower garment was below his ankels. Allah does not accept the Salat of a man who trails his lower garment.'' [Abu Dawud]
Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri (radiallahu anh) reported: Messenger of Allah (salallahu alayhi wa sallam) said, "The lower garment of a believer should be half way below the knees. He is guilty of no sin if they are up to the ankles. That which is below the ankles is in the Fire (of Hell). Allah will not look at one who allows his lower garment to trail out of vanity." [Abu Dawud]
This Hadith says that a garment like trousers, pajamas, etc., should, properly speaking, go down up to the middle of the shanks. However, it is permissible to lower it up to the ankles which should remain uncovered. This commandment is for men alone. On the contrary, women are required to cover not only their ankles, but also their feet according to one opinion (see below for more details).
Scholars have differed regarding the feet of the woman : are they`awrah in salah, or outside salah, or both or neither? There are differences among the Hanafis themselves, and there exist three authentic opinions in the madhhab:
1. That the feet are nakedness
This is based on the direct implication of the hadith, "When a girl reaches puberty, it is not appropriate that any of her should be seen, excepting her face, and her hands upto the wrists." [Narrated by : Abu Dawud; It is a mursal narration at the level of hasan.]
It is also strengthened by the narration that the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) was asked, when he mentioned the prohibition of dragging the lower garment, about what women should do with the ends of their garments.
He said, 'They should extend them a span.' Umm Salamah said, 'Then, their feet will be uncovered!' He said, 'Then, they should extend them a cubit, not exceeding that.' [Narrated by: Tirmidhi, who graded it as hasan sahih, Nasa'i and Abu Dawud, with the words, "then she will be uncovered."]
This opinion was presented as the madhhab of Abu Hanifah by al-Quduri in "Bidayat al-Mubtadi", and is also espoused by al-Jassas in "Ahkam al- Qur'an" and by Qadi-Khan. Similarly, in Sharh al-Aqta`, it is stated, "The authentic [opinion] is that it is `awrah, from the apparent [implication] of the report." [See al-Bunayah, vol. II, p. 63] Of the latter Hanafi scholars, al-Ghunaymi has inclined towards this view in "al-Lubab." The feet are also considered nakedness by Imams Malik, al-Shafi`i and Ahmad ibn Hanbal.
2. That they are not nakedness
The argument for this is based on two points: i. If the establishment of the nakedness is by the saying of Allah, the Exalted, (translated), "And let them not show their beauty, except that of it which is apparent," then the foot is not customarily a location of beauty (it may be for a minority, but regulations are set according to the general rule), and thus Allah, the Exalted, has said, (translated), "And let them not strike their feet in order to make known that adornment which they are hiding," i.e. the ringing of anklets, and this conveys that the feet themselves are of the beauty which is apparent. This is fortified by the fact that the Mother of the Believers, `A'ishah, said, commenting on the verse, (translated), "And let them not show their beauty except that of it which is apparent", "the toe-ring, a silver ring which is [placed] on the toes." [Narrated by Ibn Abi Hatim, as quoted by Ibn Taymiyyah in "Hijab al-Mar'ah", p. 17.]
ii. If the establishment is by the Prophet's saying, "The woman is to be covered," along with it being established that some of her body is excluded due to hardship of [avoiding] exposure, then, by analogy, it should necessitate that the feet also be excluded, due to the corroboration of hardship. This is because she would be put to hardship by her foot showing when she walked barefooted or with shoes, for she may not always find khuffs or socks with which to cover them. Along with this, desire is not aroused by looking at the foot such as is aroused by looking at the face, and so if the face is not `awrah, in spite of the plentiful arousal of desire, then the foot is more appropriate to remain uncovered in view of the hardship associated with covering it. [See "Fath al-Qadir" : al-Hidayah with its commentaries, vol. I, p.225, and al-Bunayah, vol. II, p.63.]
This opinion has been reported by al-Hasan from Abu Hanifah. Al- Marghinani graded it as the more authentic opinion in "al-Hidayah", and Ibn al-Humam and al-`Ayni acknowledged this in their commentaries thereof. This view has been presented as the madhhab by latter mutun, such as "Nur al-Idah" and "al-Durr al-Mukhtar". al-Thanvi concluded in "I`la al- Sunan" that it is sounder from the point of rationale.
3. That they are nakedness outside salah, but not in salah Ibn `Abidin reported this as one of the authentic views in "Radd al-Muhtar". It may be noted that Hafiz Ibn Taymiyyah, the Hanbali, also favored this opinion. He says, "And similar [is the case with] the foot. It is permissible for her to show it [in salah] according to Abu Hanifah, and [this] is the stronger [position], for `A'ishah considered it of the apparent beauty. . . . . So, this is an evidence that women used to show their feet initially, just as they used to show their faces and hands . . . . for they used not to walk in khuffs or shoes. [Moreover], to cover these in [salah] poses a great hardship, and Umm Salamah said, 'A woman should pray in an ample garment which covers the tops of her feet,' and so when she makes sajdah, the bottoms of her feet may show." [Hijab al- Mara'ah wa-Libasuha fi al-Salah, pp. 17-18]
Some scholars opined that the feet are not nakedness in that she is not required to cover them, but they are nakedness for the purposes of looking and touching, i.e. it is not permissible for stranger men to look at or touch her feet. (end)
Ibn `Umar (radiallahu anhuma) reported: My lower garment was trailing as I passed by Messenger of Allah (PBUH) so he said, "Raise your lower garment, Abdullah.'' I lifted it up and he told me to raise it higher. I complied with his orders and as I was still trying to find the best place (for it), one of the people asked where it should reach and he (salallahu alayhi wa sallam) replied, "Half way down the knees.'' [Muslim]
Ibn `Umar (radiallahu anhuma) reported: Messenger of Allah (salallahu alayhi wa sallam) said, "On the Day of Resurrection, Allah will not look at the one who trails his lower garment out of arrogance.'' Umm Salamah (radiallahu anha) asked: "What should women do with the hem of their clothes?'' He (salallahu alayhi wa sallam) said, "They might lower them a hand's span.'' She said: "But their feet would still remain exposed.'' He said, "Let them lower those equal to arm's length but not more than that.'' [Abu Dawud and At-Tirmidhi]
Ibn `Umar (radiallahu anhuma) reported: The Prophet (salallahu alayhi wa sallam) said, "On the Day of Resurrection, Allah will not look at one who trails his lower garment, Qamees or turban arrogantly.'' [Abu Dawud and An-Nasa'i]
Abu Dharr (radiallahu anh) reported: I heard the Prophet (salallahu alayhi wa sallam) saying, "There are three to whom Allah will neither speak on the Day of Resurrection nor will look at them nor purify them (i.e., of their sins), and they will be severely tormented.'' When he repeated this (statement) thrice, Abu Dharr (radiallahu anh) said: "They are doomed and destroyed! (But) who are they, O Messenger of Allah (salallahu alayhi wa sallam)?'' He said, "One whose lower garment trails, one who boasts of kindness shown to another; and one who promotes sale of his business by taking false oaths.'' [Muslim]
Abu Hurairah (radiallahu anh) reported: Messenger of Allah (salallahu alayhi wa sallam) said, "There are three (types of) people to whom Allah will not speak on the Day of Resurrection, nor will He purify them, nor look at them, and they will have a painful punishment. These are: An aged man who commits Zina (illicit sexual act), a ruler who lies, and a proud poor person.'' [Muslim]
Adultery is forbidden to everybody, whether young or old. But it is more condemnable if an old man commits it, because to be guilty of such a detestable act in old age shows that the adulterer has become hardened in sin and his heart is free from the fear of Allah. Lying is forbidden to everybody. But it is particularly vicious in case of a king or head of state. Since he possesses all powers and resources, he has little reason to tell a lie. Hence, if in spite of all this he invents a lie, it will betray his vicious mind and lack of God-consciousness. Similarly, all humans are prohibited from giving vent to pride and arrogance. But if a beggar or destitute, who has no reason to claim dignity and superiority, displays arrogance, it will be a convincing proof of his indifference to the fear of Allah and Shari`ah rules.
Abu Hurairah (radiallahu anh) reported: Messenger of Allah (salallahu alayhi wa sallam) said, "Allah, the Exalted, says: `Honour is My Izar and Pride is My Cloak. Whoever vies with Me regarding one of them, shall be tormented.''' [Muslim]
Abu Hurairah (radiallahu anh) reported: Messenger of Allah (salallahu alayhi wa sallam) said, "While a man was walking, dressed in clothes admiring himself, his hair combed, walking haughtily when Allah caused the earth to swallow him. Now he will continue to go down in it (as a punishment) until the Day of Resurrection.'' [Muslim]
This Hadith warns us against self-praise and arrogance which may pervade our hearts by fine clothes and physical beauty. Instead of adopting a proud attitude, we should be sensible enough to thank Allah for these favours and confess our servitude to Him.
Salamah bin Al-Akwa` (radiallahu anh) reported: Messenger of Allah (salallahu alayhi wa sallam) said, "Man continues to display haughtiness and arrogance until he is recorded among the arrogant and will be therefore afflicted with what afflicts them.'' [At-Tirmidhi]
To adopt the habits and manners of good people is deemed to be desirable. But, on the contrary, to take to the bad ways of bad people is considered undesirable. A man will ultimately be counted among those people whom he will take as a model to emulate, because he is gradually fitted into their framework and assimilates all of their qualities. Quite naturally then retribution will be administered to him accordingly. Indeed, it is said in another hadith that: "Whoever imitates a people is one of them." [Abu Dawud]
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