Mutah or temporary marriage refers to when a man marries a woman for a specific length of time in return for a particular amount of money.
The basic principle concerning marriage is that it should be ongoing and permanent. Temporary marriage i.e., mutah marriage was permitted at the beginning of Islam, then it was abrogated and became haraam until the Day of Judgement.
It was narrated from Ali (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) forbade mutah marriage and the meat of domestic donkeys at the time of Khaybar. According to another report, he forbade mutah marriage at the time of Khaybar and he forbade the meat of tame donkeys. [Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 3979; Muslim, 1407]
It was narrated from al-Rabee ibn Sabrah al-Juhani that his father told him that he was with the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) who said, O people, I used to allow you to engage in mutah marriages, but now Allaah has forbidden that until the Day of Resurrection, so whoever has any wives in a mutah marriage, he should let her go and do not take anything of the (money) you have given them. [Narrated by Muslim, 1406]
Allaah has made marriage one of His signs which calls us to think and ponder. He has created love and compassion between the spouses, and has made the wife a source of tranquility for the husband. He encouraged us to have children and decreed that a woman should wait out the iddah period and may inherit. None of that exists in this haraam form of marriage.
A woman who is married in a mutah marriage, according to the Raafidis i.e. the Shiah, who are the ones who say that this is permissible is neither a wife nor a concubine. But Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
And those who guard their chastity (i.e. private parts, from illegal sexual acts) Except from their wives or (the slaves) that their right hands possess, for then, they are free from blame; But whoever seeks beyond that, then those are the transgressors [al-Muminoon 23:5-7]
The Raafidis quote invalid evidence to support their argument that mutah is permissible. For example:
(a) They quote the verse in which Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
so with those of whom you have enjoyed sexual relations, give them their Mahr as prescribed [al-Nisa 4:24]
They say: this verse indicates that mutah is permissible, and the word their mahr (ujoorahunna lit. their dues or their wages) is evidence that what is meant by the phrase you have enjoyed sexual relations is mutah.
The refutation of this is the fact that prior to this Allaah mentions the women whom a man is forbidden to marry, then he mentions what is permissible for him, and He commands the man to give to the woman he marries her mahr.
The joy of marriage is expressed here by the word enjoyment (of whom you have enjoyed sexual relations). A similar instance occurs in the Sunnah, in the hadeeth of Abu Hurayrah according to which the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: Woman is like a bent rib, if you try to straighten her you will break her. If you want to enjoy her, then enjoy her while she still has some crookedness in her. [Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 4889; Muslim, 1468]
The mahr is referred to here as ajr (lit. dues or wages), but this does not refer to the money which is paid to the woman with whom he engages in mutah in the contract of mutah. The mahr is referred to as ajr elsewhere in the Book of Allaah, where Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
O Prophet (Muhammad)! Verily, We have made lawful to you your wives, to whom you have paid their Mahr (bridal‑money given by the husband to his wife at the time of marriage) [al-Ahzaab 33:50]
Thus it becomes clear that there is no evidence in this verse to suggest that mutah is permissible.
Even if we were to say for arguments sake that this verse indicates that mutah is permitted, we would still say that it is abrogated by the reports in the saheeh Sunnah which prove that mutah is forbidden until the Day of Resurrection.
(b) The reports that some of the Sahaabah regarded it as being permissible, especially Ibn Abbaas.
The refutation here is the fact that the Raafidis are following their own whims and desires, because they regard the companions of the Prophet (may Allaah be pleased with them) as kaafirs, then you see them quoting their actions as permissible in this instance and in others.
With regard to those who said that it is permissible, they are among those who did not hear that it had been forbidden. The Sahaabah (may Allaah be pleased with them) including Ali ibn Abi Taalib and Abd-Allaah ibn al-Zubayr refuted Ibn Abbaass view that mutah was permitted.
It was narrated from Ali that he heard Ibn Abbaas permitting mutah marriage, and he said, Wait a minute, O Ibn Abbaas, for the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) forbade it on the day of Khaybar and (he also forbade) the meat of tame donkeys. [Narrated by Muslim, 1407]
And Allaah knows best
Ali (رضي الله عنه) said:
The Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم had forbidden Mutah on the day of Khaybar and had forbidden the eating of the meat of domestic donkeys. [Bukhari, Muslim, Tirmizy, Ibn Majah, Nasa`i, Tahawy, Shafii, Bayhaqy, and Hazimy]
Ali (رضي الله عنه) said to a man who was engaging in Mutah:
You are a straying person, the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم has forbidden temporary marriage and the meat of domestic donkeys on the day of Khaybar. [Muslim and Bayhaqy]
A man called Rabee Bin Sabra said to Umar bin Abdul Aziz:
I testify that according to my father that it happened that the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم had forbidden it [Mutah] on the farewell pilgrimage. [Abu Dawood and Imam Ahmad]
According to Abu Huraira (رضي الله عنه):
The Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم had forbidden or abolished temporary marriage, its marriage and its divorce, its waiting period, and its inheritance. [DarQutny, Ishaq Bin Rahwiya, and Ibn Habban]
When Ali (رضي الله عنه) was given the Caliphate, he thanked Allah Most High and praised Him and said:
O people, the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم had permitted Mutah three times then forbade it. I swear by Allah, ready to fulfil my oath, that if I find any person who engages in temporary marriage without having ratified this with a proper marriage, I will have him lashed 100 stripes unless he can bring two witnesses to prove that the Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم had permitted it after forbidding it. [Ibn Majah]
Narrated Salama bin Al-Akwa (رضي الله عنه):
In the year of Autas, Allahs Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم permitted a temporary marriage for three nights, but he prohibited it afterwards. [Sahih Muslim]
Narrated Ali (رضي الله عنه):
Allahs Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم forbade the temporary marriage in the year of Khaybar. [Sahih Muslim and Sahih Bukhari]
Narrated Ali (رضي الله عنه):
At the battle of Khaybar, the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم forbade the temporary marriage (i.e Mutah) of women, and the eating of the flesh of domestic asses. [Sahih Bukhari, Sahih Muslim, Ahmad, An-Nasai, At-Termidhi and Ibn Majah have all collected it]
It was narrated from Ali (رضي الله عنه) that:
The Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم forbade Mutah marriage and the meat of domestic donkeys at the time of Khaybar. According to another report, he forbade Mutah marriage at the time of Khaybar and he forbade the meat of tame donkeys. [Narrated by Bukhari, 3979; Muslim, 1407.]
Sabrah bin Ma bad al-Jihani (رضي الله عنه) reported:
I went forth with the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم for the conquest of Mecca, and he allowed us Mutah with women. But we had not even left the city [yet] when it was prohibited by the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم.
Among the forgeries which the Shia attribute to Imam Ja'far as-Saadiq رحمه الله is his supposed condoning of temporary marriage (mut'ah). Al-Bayhaqi cites Imam Ja'far رحمه الله as calling mut'ah "pure fornication" ('ayn al-zina). [Cited by Ibn Hajar, Fath (9:173) and al-Shawkani, Nayl al-Awtar (6:271)]