TweetThe Reason Why It Is Mustahabb To Fast On Taasoo'aa Al-Nawawi (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: The scholars our companions and others mentioned several reasons why it is mustahabb to fast on Taasooaa:
the intention behind it is to be different from the Jews, who only venerate the tenth day. This opinion was reported from Ibn Abbaas
the intention is to add another days fast to Aashooraa. This is akin to the prohibition on fasting a Friday by itself, as was mentioned by al-Khattaabi and others.
To be on the safe side and make sure that one fasts on the tenth, in case there is some error in sighting the crescent moon at the beginning of Muharram and the ninth is in fact the tenth.
The strongest of these reasons is being different from the People of the Book. Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) forbade imitating the People of the Book in many ahaadeeth, for example, his words concerning Aashooraa: If I live until the next year, I will certainly fast on the ninth day. (al-Fataawa al-Kubra, part 6, Sadd al-Dharaai al-Mufdiyah ilal-Mahaarim )
Ibn Hajar (may Allaah be pleased with him) said in his commentary on the hadeeth If I live until the next year, I will certainly fast on the ninth day: What he meant by fasting on the ninth day was probably not that he would limit himself to that day, but would add it to the tenth, either to be on the safe side or to be different from the Jews and Christians, which is more likely. This is also what we can understand from some of the reports narrated by Muslim. (Fath, 4/245).
Ruling On Fasting Only On The Day Of 'Aashooraa' Shaykh al-Islam said: "Fasting on the day of Aashoraa is an expiation for a year, and it is not makrooh to fast only that day (al-Fataawaa al-Kubra, part 5). In Tuhfat al-Muhtaaj by Ibn Hajar al-Haytami, it says: There is nothing wrong with fasting only on Aashooraa. (part 3, Baab Sawm al-Tatawwu).
Fasting on Aashooraa even if it is a Saturday or a Friday Al-Tahhaawi (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) allowed us to fast on Aashooraa and urged us to do so. He did not say that if it falls on a Saturday we should not fast. This is evidence that all days of the week are included in this. In our view and Allaah knows best it could be the case that even if this is true (that it is not allowed to fast on Saturdays), it is so that we do not venerate this day and refrain from food, drink and intercourse, as the Jews do. As for the one who fasts on a Saturday without intending to venerate it, and does not do so because the Jews regard it as blessed, then this is not makrooh (Mushkil al-Aathaar, part 2, Baab Sawm Yawm al-Sabt).
The author of al-Minhaaj said: It is disliked (makrooh) to fast on a Friday alone But it is no longer makrooh if you add another day to it, as mentioned in the saheeh report to that effect. A person may fast on a Friday if it coincides with his habitual fast, or he is fasting in fulfilment of a vow, or he is making up an obligatory fast that he has missed, as was stated in a saheeh report.
Al-Shaarih said in Tuhfat al-Muhtaaj:
If it coincides with his habitual fast i.e., such as if he fasts alternate days, and a day that he fasts happens to be a Friday.
if he is fasting in fulfilment of a vow, etc. this also applies to fasting on days prescribed in shareeah, such as Aashooraa or Arafaah. (Tuhfat al-Muhtaaj, part 3, Baab Sawm al-Tatawwu)
Al-Bahooti (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: It is makrooh to deliberately single out a Saturday for fasting, because of the hadeeth of Abd-Allaah ibn Bishr, who reported from his sister: Do not fast on Saturdays except in the case of obligatory fasts (reported by Ahmad with a jayyid isnaad and by al-Haakim, who said: according to the conditions of al-Bukhaari), and because it is a day that is venerated by the Jews, so singling it out for fasting means being like them except when a Friday or Saturday coincides with a day when Muslims habitually fast, such as when it coincides with the day of Arafaah or the day of Aashooraa, and a person has the habit of fasting on these days, in which case it is not makrooh, because a persons habit carries some weight. (Kashshaaf al-Qinaa, part 2, Baab Sawm al-Tatawwu).
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