Al-jawab billahi at-taufeeq (the answer with Allah's guidance)
A person who has joined the Imam whilst the Imam is in Ruku, will be regarded as one who has performed the complete Rak'at. Once the Imam has completed the Ruku and a person then joins the Imam, he has missed a Rak'at. Such a person is known as a Masbooq.
A person who has missed any Rak'at and then joined the Jama'at, he should continue the Salaat with the Imam to the end. Once the Imam turns to say the second salam, the Musbooq should stand up and complete the missed number of Rakaats.
Masaail, for one who has Missed 1 Rakaat:
If the Musbooq has missed only One Rak'at he should stand up, read the Tasmiyah, Surah Faatihah and thereafter complete the Salaat.
Masaail, for one who has Missed 2 Rakaat:
If the Musbooq has missed Two Rak'aats in Fajr, Zuhr, Asr or Esha, he should complete both the Rak'aats by reciting Surah Fatiha and another Surah in both the Rak'aats.
If a person has missed Two Rak'aats in Maghrib Salaat, then after completing the first Rak'at make Qaidah (sit down) read Tashahhud and then stand up for the Second Rak'at. After reciting Surah Faatiha and another Surah, complete the Salaat.
Masaail, for one who has Missed 3 Rakaat:
If Three Rak'aats were missed in Zuhr, Asr or Esha, the Masbooq should stand up and read Surah Faatiha and a Surah in the First Rak'at, thereafter make Ruku and Sajdah but Before standing up for the second Rak'at, make Qaidah (sit down), read Tashahhud and then stand up for the second Rak'at.
In the second Rak'at recite Surah Faatiha and another Surah, complete the second Rak'at and without sitting for Tashahhud, stand up for the third Rak'at. In the third Rak'at read only Surah Faatiha and complete the Namaaz.
Maasail, for one who has missed all the Rakaat:
If a person has missed all the Rak'aats of any Namaaz, then he should repeat the whole Namaaz after the Imam has said the Salaam except that he should not raise his hands to say Allahu Akbar (Takbir) in the first Rak'at.
N.B. For a person who joins the Jama'at when the Imam is in Ruku, it is Farz to stand and recite Takbeer Tahrimah and thereafter to stand at least for the duration long enough in which Subhanallah could be recited once and then go into Ruku. (Talimul Haq)
And Only Allah Ta'ala Knows Best.
Answer last updated on:
28th January 2008
Ulamaa ID 04