Friday has many distinguishing features and virtues that Allaah has bestowed upon this day and not others.
It was narrated that Abu Hurayrah رضي الله عنه and Hudhayfah رضي الله عنه said: The Messenger of Allaah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said: "Allaah led those who came before us away from Friday (Jumu'ah). The Jews had Saturday, and the Christians had Sunday. Then Allaah brought us and Allaah guided us to Friday. So there is Friday, Saturday and Sunday, and thus they will follow us on the Day of Resurrection. We are the last of the people of this world but we will be the first on the Day of Resurrection, and we will be dealt with before all others." [Narrated by Muslim, 856]
It was narrated from Aws ibn Aws رضي الله عنه that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said: "The best of your days is Friday (Jumu'ah). On that day Adam (alayhis-sallam) was created; on that day he died; on that day the Trumpet will be blown and on that day all of creation will swoon. So send a great deal of blessings upon me, for your blessings will be shown to me." They said, "O Messenger of Allaah, how will our blessings upon you be shown to you when you have turned to dust?" He said, "Allaah has forbidden the earth to consume the bodies of the Prophets, عليهم الصلاة والسلام - peace be upon them." [Narrated by Abu Dawood, 1047; classed as saheeh by Ibn al-Qayyim رحمه الله in his comments on Sunan Abi Dawood]
It was narrated that Abu Hurayrah (رضي الله عنه) said: The Messenger of Allaah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said: "The best day on which the sun rises is Friday (Jumu'ah). On it Adam was created, on it he was admitted to Paradise and on it he was expelled therefrom." [Narrated by Muslim, 1410]
This hadeeth includes some of the reasons why Friday is regarded as special.
Al-Nawawi رحمة اللہ علیه said: Al-Qaadi 'Iyaad رحمة اللہ علیه said: The apparent meaning is that these virtues do not mean that Friday is regarded as special because Adam (alayhis-sallam - peace be upon him) was expelled on a Friday and the Hour will begin on a Friday. Rather it is meant to explain what momentous events took place and will take place on this day, so that people will make the most of this day to do righteous deeds, so as to attain the mercy of Allaah and ward off His punishment.
It was narrated that Abu Lubaabah ibn 'Abd al-Mundhir رضي الله عنه said: The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said: "Friday is the master of days, and the greatest of them before Allaah. It is greater before Allaah than the day of al-Adha and the day of al-Fitr. It has five characteristics: on this day Allaah created Adam, on it He sent Adam down to the earth, on it Allaah caused Adam to die, on it there is a time when a person does not ask Allaah for anything but He gives it to him, so long as he does not ask for anything haraam (forbidden), and on it the Hour will begin. There is no angel who is close to Allaah, no heaven, no earth, no wind, no mountain and no sea that does not fear Friday." [Narrated by Ibn Maajah, 1084]
Al-Sanadi رحمة اللہ علیه said: "They fear Friday" means they fear the onset of the Hour. This indicates that all created beings are aware of the days and they know that the Day of Resurrection will come on a Friday (Jumu'ah).
The virtues of this day include the following:
1 - On it is Salaat al-Jumu'ah (Friday prayer), which is the best of prayer.
Allaah سبحانه و تعالى says:
"O you who believe (Muslims)! When the call is proclaimed for the Salaah (prayer) on Friday (Jumu'ah prayer), come to the remembrance of Allaah [Jumu'ah religious talk (Khutbah) and Salaah (prayer)] and leave off business (and every other thing). That is better for you if you did but know!"[al-Jumu'ah 62:9]
Muslim (233) narrated from Abu Hurayrah (رضي الله عنه) that the Messenger of Allaah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said: "The five daily prayers and from one Jumu'ah to the next is an expiation for whatever sins come in between them, so long as one does not commit a major sin."
2 - Praying Fajr in congregation on Fridays is the best prayer that the Muslim can pray during the week.
It was narrated that Ibn 'Umar (رضي الله عنهما) said: The Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said: "The best prayer before Allaah is Fajr prayer on Friday in congregation." [Narrated by al-Bayhaqi in Shu'ab al-Eemaan]
One of the special features of Fajr prayer on Friday is that it is Sunnah to recite Soorat al-Sajdah in the first rak'ah and Soorat al-Insaan in the second.
It was narrated from Abu Hurayrah (رضي الله عنه) that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) used to recite in Fajr prayer in Fridays Soorat al-Sajdah (32) in the first rak'ah and Soorat al-Insaan (76) in the second. [Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 851; Muslim, 880]
Al-Haafiz Ibn Hajar رحمة اللہ علیه said: It was said that the reason why these two soorahs are recited is because they mention the creation of Adam and what will happen on the Day of Resurrection, because that will come to pass on a Friday.
3 - Whoever dies during the day or night of Friday, Allaah will protect him from the trial of the grave.
It was narrated that 'Abd-Allaah ibn 'Amr رضي الله عنه said: The Messenger of Allaah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said: "There is no Muslim who dies during the day of Friday or the night of Friday but Allaah will protect him from the trial of the grave." [Narrated by al-Tirmidhi, 1074]
These are some of the virtues of Friday. We ask Allaah to help us to please Him.
Acts Of Worship Which Are Prescribed On Jumu'ah (Friday)
There are many acts of worship which are prescribed for the Muslim to do on this day. These include:
1 - Salaat al-Jumu'ah (Friday prayer)
Allaah سبحانه و تعالى says:
"O you who believe (Muslims)! When the call is proclaimed for the Salaah (prayer) on Friday (Jumu'ah prayer), come to the remembrance of Allaah [Jumu'ah religious talk (Khutbah) and Salaah (prayer)] and leave off business (and every other thing). That is better for you if you did but know!" [al-Jumu'ah 62:9]
Ibn al-Qayyim (رحمه الله) said in Zaad al-Ma'aad (1/376): Friday prayer is one of the most important obligations in Islam, and one of the greatest gatherings of the Muslims. Gathering on Friday is more important and more obligatory than any other gathering apart from 'Arafah. Whoever neglects it, Allaah will place a seal on his heart.
It was narrated from Abu'l-Ja'd al-Damari (رضي الله عنه) - who was a companion of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) - that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said: "Whoever neglects three Jumu'ahs, Allaah will place a seal on his heart." [Narrated by Abu Dawood, 1052]
It was narrated from 'Abd-Allaah ibn 'Umar رضي الله عنهما and Abu Hurayrah (رضي الله عنه) that they heard the Messenger of Allaah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) say on the minbar: "Let people stop neglecting Jumu'ah, or Allaah will place a seal on their hearts, then they will be among those who are neglectful." [Narrated by Muslim, 865]
2 - Making a lot of du'aa'
On this day there is a time when a person's Lord will answer his du'aa' - by Allaah's leave.
It was narrated from Abu Hurayrah (رضي الله عنه) that the Messenger of Allaah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) mentioned Friday and said: "On this day there is a time when no Muslim stands and prays, asking Allaah for something, but Allaah will grant him it" - and he gestured with his hands to indicate how short that time is. [Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 893; Muslim, 852]
Also see:Time of the acceptance of Dua- By Shaykh Riyad ul Haq (It is explained that one of the most famous views (and this is the opinion of the majority of the scholars), is that the time of the acceptance of Du'a is after Asr prayer until sunset, on Jumu'ah (friday). And most preferably right towards the end. Imam Ahmed (رحمه الله) says that most of the ahadeeth support this)
3 - Reading Soorat al-Kahf.
It was narrated from Abu Sa'eed al-Khduri (رضي الله عنهradiallahu anh) that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said: "Whoever reads Soorat al-Kahf on Friday, he will be illuminated with light between the two Fridays." [Narrated by al-Haakim]
4 - Sending a lot of blessings upon the Prophet (salallahu 'alayhi wa sallam)
It was narrated from Aws ibn Aws رضي الله عنه that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said: "The best of your days is Friday. On that day Adam (peace be upon him) was created; on that day he died; on that day the Trumpet will be blown; and on that day all of creation will swoon. So send a great deal of blessings upon me, for your blessings will be shown to me." They said, "O Messenger of Allaah, how will our blessings upon you be shown to you when you have turned to dust?" He said, "Allaah has forbidden the earth to consume the bodies of the Prophets, peace be upon them." [Narrated by Abu Dawood, 1047; classed as saheeh by Ibn al-Qayyim رحمه الله in his comments on Sunan Abi Dawood, 4/273]
He said in 'Awn al-Ma'bood: Friday is singled out because it is the best of days and the chosen day. So there is an advantage to sending blessings upon him on that day that is not present on any other day.
Along with these virtues and acts of worship, the Prophet (salallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) forbade singling out Friday for fasting, or singling out the night of Friday for doing acts of worship that are not narrated in sharee'ah.
It was narrated from Abu Hurayrah (رضي الله عنه) that the Prophet (salallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) said: "Do not single out the night of Friday for qiyaam al-layl, and do not single out the day of Friday for fasting, unless that is part of the habitual fasting of any one of you." [Narrated by Muslim, 1144]
Al-Nawawi (رحمه الله) said: This hadeeth clearly states that it is forbidden to single out the night of Friday for prayer or the day of Friday for fasting. It is agreed (among the scholars) that this is makrooh (disliked).
He also said: The scholars said that the reason why it is forbidden to single out Friday for fasting is that Friday is a day of du'aa', dhikr and worship, such as ghusl, going early to the prayer, waiting for the prayer, listening to the khutbah and reciting a lot of dhikr afterwards, because Allaah سبحانه و تعالى says:"Then when the (Jumu'ah) Salaah (prayer) is ended, you may disperse through the land, and seek the Bounty of Allaah (by working), and remember Allaah much"[al-Jumu'ah 62:10]
And there are other acts of worship to be done on this day. So it is preferable not to fast then, as this will help a person to perform these duties in an energetic manner and enjoy them without feeling bored or tired. This is like the pilgrim on the day of 'Arafah in 'Arafah, because the Sunnah is for him not to fast on that day for the same reason... This is the reason for not allowing singling out Friday for fasting.
Abud-Darda' (رضي الله عنه) reported: The Messenger of Allah (salallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) said: "Whoever commits to memory the first ten Ayat of the Surat Al-Kahf, will be protected from (the trial of) Ad-Dajjal (Antichrist).'' [Muslim]
In another narration, the Messenger of Allah (salallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) said: "(Whoever commits to memory) the last ten Ayat of Surat Al-Kahf, he will be protected from (the trial of) Ad-Dajjal (Antichrist).''
Ad-Dajjal will appear sometime before Yaum-ul-Qiyamah. Allah, the Almighty will give him some supernatural powers the manifestation of which will shake the faith of many people. For this reason, this will be a serious trial. All Prophets (alayhimus-sallam) warned their people against him. Our Prophet (salallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) also warned us against him and ordered us to guard ourselves from it and strictly advised us to seek Refuge of Allah against it.
It was narrated that Ibn 'Umar (رضي الله عنهما) said: "The Messenger of Allaah (salallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) said: 'Whoever reads Soorat al-Kahf on the day of Jumu'ah (Friday), a light will shine for him from beneath his feet to the clouds of the sky, which will shine for him on the Day of Resurrection, and he will be forgiven (his sins) between the two Fridays.'" [Al-Mundhiri رحمة اللہ علیه said, this was narrated by Abu Bakr ibn Mardawayh رحمة اللہ علیه in his Tafseer, with an isnaad with which there was nothing wrong]
From Abu Sa'eed al-Khudri (رضي الله عنه), who said: "Whoever reads Soorat al-Kahf on the night of Jumu'ah (Friday), will have a light that will stretch between him and the Ancient House (the Ka'bah)." [Narrated by al-Daarimi, 3407]
"Whoever reads Soorat al-Kahf on the day of Jumu'ah (Friday), will have a light that will shine from him from one Friday to the next." [Narrated by al-Haakim, 2/399; al-Bayhaqi, 3/249. Ibn Hajar said in Takhreej al-Adhkaar that this is a hasan hadeeth, and he said, this is the strongest report that has been narrated concerning reading Soorat al-Kahf. See: Fayd al-Qadeer, 6/198]
The soorah may be read during the night or the day of Jumu'ah. The night of Jumu'ah starts from sunset on Thursday, and the day of Jumu'ah ends at sunset. Therefore the time for reading this soorah extends from sunset on Thursday to sunset on Friday.
Al-Mannaawi رحمة اللہ علیه said: Al-Haafiz ibn Hajar رحمة اللہ علیه said in his Amaali: "In some reports it says 'the day of Jumu'ah' and in some reports it says 'the night of Jumu'ah'. They may be reconciled by saying that what is meant is the day which includes the night and vice versa." (Fayd al-Qadeer, 6/199)
Al-Mannaawi also said: "It is recommended to read it during the day or night of Jumu'ah, as al-Shaafa'i (rahmatullahi alaih) stated." (Fayd al-Qadeer, 6/198)
It is recommended to recite Surat al-Kahf completely the night before Friday, and it is also recommended to do so Friday itself, before Maghrib time. Ibn Abidin said, And it is best to do so early on Friday, in order to rush to the good and to avoid forgetting. [Ibn Abidin, Radd al-Muhtar, Bab al-Jumu`ah]
What should one do if he misses three jumu'ah prayers in a row due to lunch time meetings at work? Has he lost his shahadah? He is not chronically negligent of jumua''h but it just so happened that he did miss three in a row out this once.
In the name of Allah, Most Compassionate, Most Merciful,
Friday prayer is personally obligatory (Fard Ayn) upon every Muslim. It has been established from the Qur'an, Sunnah and the consensus of the Ummah. It is one of the most important features of Islam. The one who rejects it is a Kafir and the one who misses it without a valid excuse is a Fasiq.
Allah Almighty says: "O, you who believe! When the call for Friday prayer is made, hasten towards the remembrance of Allah (Prayer and Khutba) and leave all transactions. This is best for you if you know." (Surah al-Jumu'ah, V.9)
Sayyiduna Abd Allah ibn Umar and Sayyiduna Abu Hurayra (Allah be pleased with them both) narrate that they heard the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) say on the planks of his pulpit: "People must cease from abandoning the Friday prayers or Allah will seal their hearts and then they will be among the negligent." (Sahih Muslim, no. 865)
Abu Ja'd al-Dhamri (Allah be pleased with him) narrates that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said: "Whosoever misses three Jumu'ah prayers by taking the matter lightly, Allah will seal his heart." (Sunan Abu Dawud, Sunan Tirmidhi, Sunan Nasa'i, Sunan Ibn Majah and al-Darami)
The importance of the Friday prayer is evident from the abovementioned. A Muslim should, therefore, never attempt to miss it. To miss even one Jumu'ah prayer without a legally valid excuse is highly sinful, and to miss three is totally unacceptable, with Allah Most High sealing the heart of the transgressor due to which no good enters his heart.
However, missing the Jumu'ah prayer does not entail one leaving Islam, as is the case with all unlawful and sinful acts. According to the scholars of Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-Jama'ah, a sin does not take one out of the fold of Islam, rather one becomes sinful.
Thus, leaving three Jumu'ahs will not be considered disbelief (kufr), in that one will not have to repeat the Shahadah and renew one's Iman. However, if one rejects the obligation of the Friday prayer (Mustaheel) or takes the matter lightly in a mocking way (istikhfaf), then one will come out of the fold of Islam. (See the major books on Islamic Creed and the commentaries of the major Hadith collections)
And Allah knows best
[Mufti] Muhammad ibn Adam
Leicester , UK
Merits Of Reading Some Surahs After The Jumu'ah Salah
Asma' bint Abi Bakr (رضي الله عنها) narrates: "Whoever read Surah al-Fatiha, Surah Ikhlas, and the Mu'awwadhatayn (Surah al-Falaq and Surah an-Nas) seven times each after the Jumu'ah Salaah shall be safeguarded till the next Friday." Waki' (رحمه الله) [the narrator] said: I myself experienced this and found it as mentioned. (Bayhaqi)
Ummul Mu'mineen Hadrat 'Aa'isha Siddeeqah bint as-Siddeeq (رضي الله عنهما) narrates that the Messenger of Allaah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said: "He who reads Surah Iklhas, Surah al-Falaq, and Surah an-Nas seven times after the Jumu'ah Salaah, Allaah (سبحانه وتعالى) shall give him refuge against evil till the next Friday." (Ibn Sunni, and Suyooti)
Ibn Shihab (رحمه الله) said: "He who reads Surah Ikhlas, and the Mu'awwadhatayn (Surah al-Falaq and Suran an-Nas) after the Jumu'ah Salaah when the Imaam makes the salaam [marking the end of the prayer], and before entering into any conversation, then he shall be protected." Abu 'Ubayd (رحمه الله) [one of the narrators] said: I think he said:He, his wealth, and his children shall be under the protection of Allaah (سبحانه وتعالى) from one friday to the next Friday. (Abu Ubayd)
Is Wearing White Clothes on Fridays a Sunna for Men?
Mufti Muhammad Ibn Adam In the name of Allah, Most Compassionate, Most Merciful,
Much significance has been attached to wearing white clothes in general, as seen in the following Hadiths:
Sayyiduna Abdullah ibn Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) relates that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) said: "Wear white clothes, because they are the best of your clothes (khayru thiyabikum), and shroud your dead in it..." (Sunan Abi Dawud no: 4057, Sunan Tirmidhi no: 994 who classed it to be rigorously authenticated (sahih), and Sunan Ibn Majah no: 3566)
Sayyiduna Samura ibn Jundub (may Allah be pleased with him) relates that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) said: "Wear white clothes, because they are more pure and more clean." (Sunan Ibn Majah no: 3567 and Shama'il Tirmidhi no: 68)
Sayyiduna Abu al-Darda (may Allah be pleased with him) relates that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) said: "The best clothing in which you meet Allah in your graves and in your Mosques is white." (Sunan Ibn Majah no: 3568)
In the first of the Hadiths quoted, white clothing is considered the best of one's clothes. On the other hand, the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) has encouraged us to wear the best of our clothes on Fridays.
Sayyiduna Abu Hurayra and Abu Sa'id al-Khudri (may Allah be pleased with them) both relate that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) said: "Whoever has a bath on Friday, puts on the best of his clothes, applies perfume if he has any, then attends Friday prayer without crossing over people's necks, then performs what Allah has prescribed for him, then remains silent from the time his Imam comes out [to deliver the sermon] until he finishes his prayer, it will atone for his [minor] sins committed in between this Friday prayer and the Friday prayer of the previous week." (Sunan Abi Dawud no: 347, Musnad Ahmad, and Mustadrak of al-Hakim no: 1084)
Furthermore, Imam al-Bukhari (may Allah have mercy on him) has formed a chapter-heading in his Sahih: "Chapter regarding putting on the best clothing that one possesses" and then records the Hadith of Sayyiduna Umar ibn al-Khattab (may Allah be pleased with him) who, upon seeing a silken cloak [being sold] at the gate of the Mosque, said to the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace), "I wish you would buy this to wear on Fridays and when delegations visit you....." (Sahih al-Bukhari no: 846), indicating that one should wear the best clothes available on a Friday.
Combining the two types of Hadiths mentioned above, it can be deduced that wearing white clothes on Fridays, especially for the Friday prayer, is recommended, if one has them in his possession. The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) termed white clothes as the "best of your clothes" and encouraged us to "put on the best of our clothes" on Fridays, implicitly indicating the recommendation of wearing white clothes on Fridays. However, if one does not possess any white clothes, then one should put on the best available clothes, since the Sunna is to wear the best clothing available.
The jurists (fuqaha) of the various Sunni Schools of Islamic law consider wearing white clothes on Fridays to be recommended. It is stated in the well-known Hanafi Fiqh reference work, Al-Fatawa al-Hindiyya:
"It is recommended (mustahab) for the one attending the Friday prayer to oil his hair, apply perfume if he has any and put on his best clothes, and white clothes are recommended (mustahab)..." (Al-Fatawa al-Hindiyya 1/149)
According to the Malikis, it is recommended to wear white clothes specifically for the Friday prayer, whilst a new dress is recommended for Eid day, even if it is black. So if Eid were to fall on a Friday, one would wear the new non-white dress in the morning, change to white clothing for the Friday prayer, and then return to the new dress after the prayer. (See: Hashiyat al-Dasuqi on the Sharh al-Kabir of Dardir 1/596)
The Shafi'i's also hold wearing white clothes for a male attending the Friday prayer to be recommended based on the Hadiths mentioned above. As for a female attending the Friday prayer, it is disliked for her to apply perfume, adorn herself and wear stylish clothing. (See: Khatib al-Shirbini's Mughni al-Muhtaj 1/440)
And Allah knows best
[Mufti] Muhammad ibn Adam
Leicester , UK
Of the many blessings and gifts of Allāh ta'ālā is the bounty of special seasons and places, during which and where the rewards of good deeds are multiplied to such extents known only to Allāh ta'ālā. One such moment is the day of Friday, a day greater in virtue than the 'Īdayn (two days of 'Īd). It has been narrated that this day is the leader of all days.
Similarly, it is common knowledge that the Noble Prophet sallallāhu 'alayhi wasallam is the leader of all mankind, hence these two leaders have a great bond, thus on the day of Friday we should pay much attention to the sunnah of the Noble Prophet sallallāhu 'alayhi wasallam. Keeping this in mind, highlighted below are 10 guidelines that this humble one desires all of his associates to practice, in order to gain maximum benefit from this day:
1) Send salāt and salām upon the Noble Prophet sallallāhu 'alayhi wasallam in abundance. On the day of Friday, aim to do so at least 500 times. Thereafter slowly increase this number as you gain steadfastness. Initially, one may recite a short formula of salāt and salām, e.g.
and after becoming steadfast on this, one should gradually begin reciting longer narrations which can be found in the books of salāt and salām.
2) On the night preceding the day of Friday (Thursday night), recite Sūrah ad-Dhukhān (Sūrah 44, Juz 25). The virtue of its recitation is that a palace is built in Jannah for the reciter.
3) On the day of Friday, recite Sūrah al-Kahf (Sūrah 18, Juz 15). The virtue being that such a person will be saved from the trials of Dajjāl. The trial of Dajjāl is the greatest of trials, and if by reciting this Sūrah one is saved from it, then it is hoped that he will most definitely be saved from all other trials which are relatively smaller in comparison to the trial of Dajjāl.
4) Proceed to the masjid early for the Jumu'ah salāh. The earlier one reaches the masjid, the more reward has been promised in the ahādīth.
5) Offer Salah-at-Tasbīh. Its method can be learnt from books such as Fadā'il-e-A'māl.
6) Before getting up from your place after the 'Asr salāh, recite 80 times:
7) Spend the time between 'Asr and Maghrib salāhs in the masjid, with the intention of Nafl I'tikāf. It is preferable to spend this time reciting salāt and salām, however there is no harm in engaging in other good deeds, such as reciting the Qur'ān and Dhikr (remembrance of Allāh ta'ālā).
8) 10-15 minutes before the Maghrib Adhān, engage yourself in du'ā. It has been narrated that there is a moment every Friday, during which the du'ā of a believer is certainly accepted. Of the many opinions with regards the specification of this moment, the weightiest opinions are:
a. It is the period between the Imām sitting on the pulpit and the completion of salāh.
b. It is the last few moments before sunset.
It has also been the experience of many 'Ulamā and Mashā'ikh that this moment comes shortly before Maghrib.
9) On the day of Friday, try to carry out as many good deeds as possible, be they sunnah, nafl or mustahabb.
10) Totally abstain from all sinful and futile acts. Anything which is neither beneficial in this world nor in the hereafter should be totally abstained from, not only on the day of Friday but rather every day.
Acting upon these ten guidelines, together with acting upon every sunnah, nafl and mustahabb act related to this special day will inshā Allāh help in making our Jumu'ah a means of great blessings and gaining the love and pleasure of Allāh ta'ālā. May Allāh ta'ālā grant us the ability to act upon all the sunnah acts of the Noble Prophet sallallāhu 'alayhi wasallam.
Narrated As-Saib Ibn Yazid:
In the life-time of the Prophet (salallahu alayhi wa sallam), Abu Bakr and Umar (radiallahu anhuma), the Adhan for the Jumu'ah prayer used to be pronounced when the Imam sat on the pulpit. But during the Caliphate of 'Uthman (radiallahu anh) when the Muslims increased in number, a third Adhan at Az-Zaura' was added. Abu 'Abdullah said, "Az-Zaura' is a place in the market of Madina." (Bukhari, Volume 2, Book 13, Number 35)
Narrated As-Saib Ibn Yazid:
The person who increased the number of Adhans for the Jumu'ah prayers to three was Uthman ibn Affan (radiallahu anh) and it was when the number of the (Muslim) people of Madina had increased. In the life-time of the Prophet (salallahu alayhi wa sallam) there was only one Muadhin and the Adhan used to be pronounced only after the Imam had taken his seat (i.e. on the pulpit). (Bukhari, Volume 2, Book 13, Number 36)
I heard As-Saib bin Yazid, saying, "In the life-time of Allah's Apostle (salallahu alayhi wa sallam), and Abu Bakr and Umar (radiallahu anhuma), the Adhan for the Jumu'ah prayer used to be pronounced after the Imam had taken his seat on the pulpit. But when the people increased in number during the caliphate of 'Uthman (radiallahu anh), he introduced a third Adhan (on Friday for the Jumua prayer) and it was pronounced at Az-Zaura' and that new state of affairs remained so in the succeeding years." (Bukhari, Volume 2, Book 13, Number 39)
First Adhan: After the Imam had taken his seat (i.e. on the pulpit).
Second Adhan: is the Iqamat (which can be described as an Adhan too).
These two Adhan were during the life time of the Prophet (salallahu alayhi wa sallam), and Abu Bakr and Umar (radiallahu anhuma).
The third Adhan mentioned in the above Ahadith is before the Khutba Adhan, this was introduced by Uthman (radiallahu anh). (Ma'arifus Sunan Vol. 4 Pg. 405, 406)
After analysing all these narrations we learn that the third Adhan (before the Khutba Adhan) of Jumu'ah is the Sunnah of Uthman (radiallahu anh) and Ijma us Sahabah (consensus of the Sahabah). ('Umadatul Qari Vol. 6 Pg. 211) (Darse Tirmidhi Vol. 2 Pg. 292, 293)
This ijma' is definite and Lazim (binding), whoever rejects this is not a Kafir but a Fasiq (transgressor). (Usul us Shashi Pg. 79)
Sunnah of the Khulafah-e-Raashideen: Following the Sunnah of the Khulafah-e-Raashideen (radiallahu anhum) is in accordance to the command of Rasulullah (salallahu alayhi wa sallam). Imaam Tirmizi (rahmatullahi alaih) narrates the following Hadith in Tirmizi Shareef in the section Abwaabul Ilm (chapters of knowledge) under the chapter - Chapter on holding firmly onto the Sunnah and Abstaining from Bid'ah.
Irbaad bin Saariya (radiallahu anh) narrates: "Rasulullah (salallahu alayhi wa sallam) preached to us one day after Fajar with utmost eloquence which caused the eyes to tear and the hearts to tremble. A man then said: "Definitely this is the advice of a person bidding farewell, hence what do you emphatically command us with O Messenger of Allah?" He (Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) said: "I emphatically command you with the fear of Allah and the listening and obedience even (if your leader be) an Abyssinian slave. Verily who lives from amongst you will observe such dissension. Save yourself from newly invented matters because it is definitely misguidance. Whosoever reaches that era from amongst you then my Sunnah and Sunnah of the rightly guided Khulafa is mandatory upon him. Bite upon it (the Sunnah) with the molars (i.e. stick dogeddly to it or cling stubbornly to it)." (Tirmizi vol.2 pg.92)
Imaam Tirmizi (Rahmatullahi Alaih) narrates this Hadith and commented: "This Hadith is Hasan and Sahih." Both words indicating the authenticity of Tuhfatul Ahwazee (commentary of Tirmizi) states about this Hadith: "Imaam Ahmad, Abu Dawood and Ibne Majah (Rahmatullahi Alaihim) have reported it (this Hadith) and Abu Dawood (Rahmatullahi Alaih) maintained silence about it. Allamah Munziri (Rahmatullahi Alaih) transmitted the authentication of Imaam Tirmizi (Rahmatullahi Alaih) and confirmed it." (Tuhfatul Ahwazee vol.7 pg.368)
Hafiz Ibne Hajar (Rahmatullahi Alaih) examining this Hadith mentions: "Imaam Ahmad, Abu Dawod, Tirmizi, Ibne Majah, Ibne Hibbaan and Haakim (Rahmatullahi Alaihim) report it from Irbaad bin Saariya. Allamah Bazzaar (Rahmatullahi Alaih) said: "Its Sanad is more Sahih than the Hadith of Huzaifah (RadhiyAllahu Anhu)." (Talkheesul Habeer vol.2 pg. 190).
We conclude that after all these authorities have proved this Hadith to be authentic, to follow the Sunnah of the rightly guided Khulafa is definitely in accordance to the Sunnah of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) and it is Wajibul Ittiba'(necessary to follow) also.
All the Sahabah (RadhiyAllahu Anhum) present had agreed upon this practice. From then onwards including the Khilafah of Ali (RadhiyAllahu Anhu), Tabi'een (successors), Tabi' Tabe'een, including the four Imams (Rahmatullahi Alaihim), up to this day the Muslim Ummah (at large) has followed this practice for the last 14 centuries.
Also, Jumu'ah Salah will be valid without the first Adhan but disliked to do so.
Merely Reciting Surat al-Fatiha in the Friday sermon (Khutba)
Sometimes where we perform Jumu'ah Salat, we don't have anyone who is able to give the Khutba in Arabic. However, there are people who have memorized parts of the Qur'an. In this case, if a person only recites Surat al-Fatiha, Surat al-Ikhlas or other similar Surahs from the Qur'an, will the Khutba be considered valid?
In the name of Allah, Most Compassionate, Most Merciful,
According to Imam Abu Hanifa (may Allah be pleased with him), the mere recitation of a Surah or some verses from the Qur'an is enough for the Jumu'a sermon (khutba) to be considered valid, provided this is done with the intention of Khutba. However, it is somewhat disliked (makruh tanzih) to suffice with verses from the Qur'an, as this will entail omitting the various Sunnas of the Friday sermon.
It is stated in Maraqi al-Falah:
It is acceptable to suffice in the [Jumu'a] Khutba with the pure mention (dhikr) of Allah Most High such as saying Subhan Allah, Al-Hamdulillah, La ilaha illallah or Allahu Akbar, but with dislike (karaha) due to leaving out the Sunna [method of Khutba], according to Imam Abu Hanifa." Tahtawi adds in his commentary that the dislike here is somewhat disliked (karaha tanzihiyya). (Maraqi al-Falah sharh Nur al-Idah with the Hashiya of Tahtawi, P: 513)
It is mentioned in Al-Fatawa al-Hindiyya that the Jumu'a Khutba comprises of certain obligatory (fard) and Sunna acts. As for the obligatory acts, these are two: 1) Time, which begins after midday (zawal), and that the Khutba must be delivered before the prayer. 2) The remembrance or mention (dhikr) of Allah Most High. This can be carried out by uttering Al-Hamdulillah, La ilaha illallah or Subhan Allah. As for the Sunna acts, these are fifteen such as starting the Khutba with the praise of Allah , pronouncing the Shahadatayn, sending blessings upon the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace), counselling, and reciting at least three short verses (or one long verse) from the Qur'an. (Al-Fatawa al-Hindiyya 1/146-147)
As such, Imam Abu Hanifa is of the view that anything that can be termed as the "Dhikr of Allah" is sufficient for the validity of the Khutba regardless of the duration, and as such, merely uttering "Al-Hamdulillah" is sufficient. However, it is offensive to omit the various Sunna acts of the Khutba. He supports his view with the following verse of the Qur'an:
"O you who believe, when the call for prayer is proclaimed on Friday, hasten for the remembrance of Allah, and leave off business. That is much better for you, if you but know." (Surah al-Jumu'a, V: 9)
In this verse, the command is to hasten towards the "remembrance of Allah (dhikr)" without detailing whether this "Dhikr" must be long or short. As such, the mere utterance of a word that can be termed as "Dhikr" is enough to deem the Khutba as valid. (See: Radd al-Muhtar 2/148 and Maraqi al-Falah P: 514)
Imam Abu Yusuf and Imam Muhammad ibn al-Hasan (may Allah have mercy on them) of the Hanafi School, however, are of the opinion that it is necessary that the Khutba is long enough to the extent that it can be called a sermon. The minimum requirement is to deliver the Khutba for the duration in which one is able to recite the Tashahhud (Al-Tahiyyat to wa Rasuluh). (See: Radd al-Muhtar 2/148 and Maraqi al-Falah P: 513)
In light of the above, if one was to merely recite Surat al-Fatiha or Surat al-Ikhlas, the Khutba would be considered valid, since this would fulfil the requirement of "mentioning the name of Allah (dhikr)" However, one should avoid doing this in future. If there is no one available to deliver the Khutba in Arabic, the one delivering the Khutba should at least begin with the praise of Allah Most High, say the Shahadatayn, recite three short verses of the Qur'an and send blessings (salawat) upon the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace). This should be repeated in both Khutbas.
And Allah knows best [Mufti] Muhammad ibn Adam
Leicester , UK
Regards to sunnah of Jummah! The four rakaats of sunnah prayed before the khutba, what is its authenticity, it's evidence?! In the prophet's time there was only one azaan, did the sermon start immediately after the azaan, or did Prophet (SAL) pray four rakaats and then gave the Khutbah? How did these rakaats be pronounced as sunnah muakkadah? Please give a detailed explanation with evidence and reference!
In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful
Assalaamu 'alaykum waRahmatullahi Wabarakatuh
The issue of four rakaats salaah before the jummah salaat is well substantiated and proven from the books of Hadith. Many Muhaditheen such as Ibn Abi Shayba (رحمه الله), Abdur Razzaaq (رحمه الله) etc have set aside chapters in their Hadith books to discuss this issue.
It is sunnat to perform four rakaats of salaah before the jumu'ah salaat. Consider the following Ahadith:
.كان يصلي قبل الجمعة أربعا وبعدها أربعا
"Ali (رضي الله عنه) reports that Rasulullah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) used to perform four rak'aat salaah before the jumu'ah salaah and after the jum'aah salaah" (I'laaus Al-Sunan, vol 7, pg 13, Idaratul Al-Quran)
The chain of narrators in the above narration is good. (Tarhut Al-Tathreeb, vol 3, pg 36, Ilmiyya)
.كان رسول الله يركع قبل الجمعة أربعا وبعدها أربعا
"Ibn Abbas (رضي الله عنهما) reports that Rasulullah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) used to perform four rak'aat of salaah before and after the jumu'ah salaah" (I'laaus Al-Sunan, vol 7, pg 13, Idaratul Al-Quran)
The above hadith with the chain of narrators that appear in Tabrani is good. (I'laaus Al-Sunan, vol 7, pg 13, Idaratul Al-Quran)
.عن أبي عبد الرحمن السلمي قال : كان عبد الله يأمرنا أن نصلي قبل الجمعة أربعا ، وبعدها أربعا
Abu Abdir Rahman Al-Sulami (رحمه الله) reports: "Abdullah (ibn Mas'ood) رضي الله عنه used to command us to perform four rak'aat salaah before jumu'ah and after the jumu'ah salaah" (Musannaf Abdir Al-Razaaq, vol 3, pg 247, Idaratul Quran)
The chain of narrators in the above Hadith is authentic. (Athaar Al-Sunan, pg 303, Imdaadiyya)
.عن عبد الله قال كان يصلي قبل الجمعة أربعا
"Abdullah (Ibn Mas'ood) رضي الله عنه reports that Rasulullah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) used to perform four rak'aat before the jumu'ah salaah" (Musannaf Ibn Abi Shayba, vol 4, pg 114, Al-Majlis al-Ilmi)
.عن صافية ، قالت : رأيت صفية بنت حيي رضي الله عنها ، صلت أربع ركعات قبل خروج الإمام للجمعة ، ثم صلت الجمعة مع الإمام ركعتين .
Saafiyah (رضي الله عنها) reports: "I saw Safiyyah Binti Huyay (رضي الله عنها) performing four rak'aat of salaah before the Imaam came out for jumu'ah, then she performed two rak'aat of jumu'ah salaat with the Imaam" (Nasbur Al-Raayah, vol 2, pg 207, Makkiyya)
.عن إبراهيم قال كانوا يصلون قبلها أربعا.
"Ibrahim (Al-Nakh'ee) رحمه الله reports that the Sahaba (رضي الله عنهم أجمعين) used to perform four rak'aat of salaah before the jumu'ah salaah" (Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah, vol 4, pg 114, Al-Majlis al-Ilmi)
Abdullah Ibn Mas'ood (رضي الله عنه) used to command the people to perform four rak'aat of salaah before the jumu'ah salaah as understood from the above Ahadith. This is an indication that Abdullah Ibn Mas'ood (رضي الله عنه) used to consider these four rak'aat as Sunnat Mu'akkadah. In fact the Muhaditheen classify the Athar of Ibn Mas'ood رضي الله عنه as "Marfoo' Hukman". (I'laaus Al-Sunan, vol 7, pg 12, Idaratul Quran)
This cannot be undone and I am sure it will be greatly appreciated.
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