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#1 [Permalink] Posted on 17th November 2011 10:24

The Kitab al-Athar of Imam Abu Hanifa

The Narration of Imam Muhammad ibn al-Hasan Ash Shaybani

 

The Kitab al-Athar was the first book composed in Islam after the generation of the Companions.

Al-Imam al-A'zam Abu Hanifah Nu'man ibn Thabit wrote it. It comprises Ahadith that connect directly back to the Messenger of Allah sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam (marfu'), those which stop short at a Companion or one of the Followers (mawquf) and those which are attributed to the Messenger  sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam  directly by one of the Followers or Followers of the Followers without attribution to a Companion (mursal).

 

His companions Imam Abu Yusuf, Imam Zufar, Imam Muhammad, Imam al-Hasan ibn Ziyad,  Imam Hammad ibn Abi Hanifah the Imam's son,  Hafs ibn Ghiyath and others narrated it from him.

 

In the version before us, Imam Muhammad, himself a mujtahid, narrated each tradition from Imam Abu Hanifah and then followed each with some  explanatory material, sometimes confirming and occasionally differing with his Imam.

 

Imam Abu Hanifah

 

Imam Abu Hanifah was from Kufa and was one of the  Followers (taabi'oon). He was born in 80 AH in a family of Persian ancestry. Imam Abu Hanifah was a trader  in fabrics. He studied with the great scholars of Kufa  who transmitted the schools of Ibn Masud and Ali  ibn Abi Talib in particular, but he also travelled  further afield in search of hadith and fiqh. He was  noted for his exceptional grasp of fiqh, and is said to have laid its foundations. He died in 150 AH in Baghdad.

 

His list of teachers is very extensive, and his list of pupils a roll-call of honour.

 

Sahl ibn Muzahim said, Abu Hanifah's knowledge  was universal knowledge.  Ash-Shafi'ee said, "In fiqh people are the needy dependents of Abu Hanifah."

 

Imam Muhammad

 

He is Abu Abdillah Muhammad ibn al-Hasan ibn  Farqad ash-Shaybani. Muhammad was born in Wasit in 132 AH, and grew up in Kufa. He was a pupil of Abu Hanifah. Imam Ash-Shafi'ee said, "I have not seen anyone more eloquent than him. I used to think when I saw him reciting the Quran that it was as if the Quran had been revealed in his language".  He also said, "I have not seen anyone more intelligent than Muhammad ibn al-Hasan". He died in Ray in 189 AH.

 

Source of all Hadith is Turath Published - Kitab al-Athar of Imam Abu Hanifa

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#2 [Permalink] Posted on 17th November 2011 10:28
I will leave this space open for additional info to be added later as an introduction.

PLEASE NOTE THAT THE HADITH POSTED HERE ARE FOR REFERENCE ONLY, PLEASE DO NOT TAKE THESE AS THE FINAL VERDICT OR FATWA OF THE HANAFI MADHAB. THERE ARE PLENTY OF BOOKS ON FIQH WHICH SHOULD BE REFERRED TO. ALSO NOTE THAT WE SHOULD NOT SIMPLY ACT UPON A HADITH UPON OUR OWN UNDERSTANDING, THE FUQAHA ARE FUQAHA AND THEY ARE IN MUCH MORE AUTHORITY THAN THE MUHADDITH TO GIVE AN EXPLANATION OF THE HADITH. YOU MAY REFER TO VARIOUS TOPICS POSTED WITHIN MUFTISAYS AND BEYOND.
Please feel free to contribute Hadith from The Kitab al-Athar of Imam Abu Hanifa. I would be greatful if you could add the Hadith in order, Jazakallah.

If you would like to add anything to the Introduction, please PM and InshaAllah I will add it here.

I reserve the right to delete any unwanted posts from this thread, If you post here, you have given me permission to edit or delete the posts, Jazakallah

I have had verbal consent from Brother Yahya of Turath Publishers on posting snippets and Hadith here. I will be posting only the Hadith and not the commentary or footnotes.

Brother Yahya has asked me to refer the Hadith back to the source which they are. www.turath.co.uk/front/index.php/online-shop/the-kitab-al...


جزاك الله خيرا
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#3 [Permalink] Posted on 17th November 2011 10:46
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#4 [Permalink] Posted on 17th November 2011 11:00

PURIFICATION

1. Wudu

 

1. Muhammad ibn al-Hasan said, "Abu Hanifa informed us from Hammaad from Ibrahim [an-Nakha'i] from al-Aswad ibn Yazid that Umar ibn al-Khattaab رضي الله عنه performed wudu, and washed his hands twice, rinsed his mouth twice, rinsed his nose twice, washed his face twice, washed his forearms twice: backwards and forward, then wiped his head twice, and washed his feet twice. Hammaad said, 'Once suffices if it is done fully.'"

Muhammad said "This is the verdict of Abu Hanifa, and we adhere to it."

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#5 [Permalink] Posted on 17th November 2011 11:10
2. Muhammad ibn al-Hasan said, "Abu Hanifa informed us from Hammaad from Ibrahim [an-Nakha'i] said, 'Wash the front of your ears along with the facem, and wipe the back of your ears along with the head.'"

That was his position and ash-Sha'bi gave that verdict too, because the forepart of the ears is a part of the face and the rear part of them is a part of the head.
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#6 [Permalink] Posted on 17th November 2011 11:20
3. Muhammad said, "Abu Hanifa said, 'It has reached us that the Messenger of Allah (salallahu 'alahyi wa sallam) said, "The ears are a part of the head."'"

It has also been narrated from ibn Umar رضي الله عنه as a marfu Hadith and has been transmitted by a Sahih chain of transmissions, as narrated by Ibn Majah from Abdullah in Zayd and ad-Daaraqutni ftom ibn Abbas that the Prophet (salallahu 'alahyi wa sallam) said, "The ears are a part of the head."

Muhammad said. "It pleases us (i.e. its a part of Sunnah) that one should wipe both their fronts and their backs along with the head. And we adhere to this."
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#7 [Permalink] Posted on 17th November 2011 16:00
4. Muhammad said, "Abu Hanifa informed us, 'Abu Sufyaan [Tarif ibn Shihaab] narrated to us from Abu Nadrah [al-Mundhir ibn Malik] from Abu Said al-Khudri رضي الله عنه that the Prophet (salallahu 'alahyi wa sallam) said, "Wudu is the key to the prayer, takbir is what renders actions not fitting with the prayer impermissible and as-sallamu 'alaykum is what what renders the actions other than the prayer [such as speech and other things] permissible. A prayer without it the Opening of the Book [al-Fatihah] and some other [ayat] along with it is not valid, and give greetings in every two rak'ahs"" meaning the tashahhud."

Muhammad said, "We adhere to this, and one has done badly if he only recites the Mother of the Book [al-Fatiha], but it suffices him."
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#8 [Permalink] Posted on 18th November 2011 07:30
5. Imam Muhammad رضي الله عنه said, "It has reached us* that Ibn 'Abbas رضي الله عنه was asked about recitation in prayer and he said, 'It is your Imam, so if you wish recite a little, and if you wish recite much.' That is the verdict of Imam Abu Hanifa رضي الله عنه.'

* And his traditions that are narrated in wordings such as 'it has reached us' do have chains of transmission.
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#9 [Permalink] Posted on 18th November 2011 08:03
2. What Water Left By Horses, Mules, Donkeys And Cats Is Permissible For Use In Wudu


6. Imam Muhammad ibn al-Hasan رضي الله عنه said, 'Imam Abu Hanifa رضي الله عنه informed us from Hammad رضي الله عنه that Ibrahim رضي الله عنه said concerning a cat which drinks from a vessel, 'It is a member of the household and there is no harm in drinking what it leaves,' and so I (Hammad) asked him, 'Does one use what it leaves over in purification for the prayer?' He said, 'Allah has made water ilicit, but He has not commanded nor forbidden [the use of water left over by a cat].'

Imam Muhammad رضي الله عنه said, 'Imam Abu Hanifa رضي الله عنه said, 'Something other than it would be preferable to me, but if one does perform wudu with it, that is valid, and if one drinks of it, there is no harm.'' Muhammad رضي الله عنه said, 'We adhere to the verdict of Imam Abu Hanifa رضي الله عنه.'
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#10 [Permalink] Posted on 18th November 2011 08:05
7. Imam Muhammad رضي الله عنه said, 'Imam Abu Hanifa رضي الله عنه informed us from Hammad رضي الله عنه that Ibrahim رضي الله عنه said, 'There is no good in water left over by mules and donkeys, and no one ought to do wudu with water left over by mules and donkeys, but one can do wudu with water left over by horses and non-Arabian horses, sheep and camels.''

Imam Muhammad رضي الله عنه said, 'That is the verdict of Imam Abu Hanifa رضي الله عنه and we adhere to it.'
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#11 [Permalink] Posted on 18th November 2011 08:12
3. Wiping Over Leather Socks


There is no disagreement about the transmission of wiping over leather socks (khuffayn) from the Sahabah رضي الله عنه, since each one of them about whom it has been narrated that he repudiated it has also had it narrated of him that he affirmed it. It is narrated of al-Hasan al-Basri رضي الله عنه that he said, 'I saw seventy (70) of the people of Badr from among the Companions all of whom held the view that one wipes over leather socks.'

It is for this reason that Imam Abu Hanifa رضي الله عنه held the view that it is one of the preconditions of [being one of] the people of the Sunnah and the Comunity (Ahlus Sunnah wal Jama'ah] and he said, 'We give preference to the Shaykhayn (Abu Bakr رضي الله عنه and Umar رضي الله عنه, preferring them over all the other Companions) and we love the two who were related through their daughters [to the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam, and they were Abu Bakr رضي الله عنه and Umar رضي الله عنه], and we hold the view that one wipes over leather socks.'
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#12 [Permalink] Posted on 18th November 2011 08:17
8. Imam Muhammad رضي الله عنه said, 'Imam Abu Hanifa رضي الله عنه informed us saying, 'Abu Bakr ibn Abdullah ibn Abi Jahm رضي الله عنه narrated to us that Abdullah ibn Umar رضي الله عنه said, 'I went to Iraq on the military expedition of Jalula, and I saw Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas رضي الله عنه wiping over leather socks, so I said, 'What is this, Sa'd?' He answered, 'When you meet Ameerul Mu'mineen Umar رضي الله عنه, ask him.'' He said, 'So I met Umar رضي الله عنه and informed him of what Sa'd رضي الله عنه had done. Umar رضي الله عنه said, 'Sa'd رضي الله عنه spoke the truth. We saw the Messenger of Allah (salalllaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) doing it, so we did it.'' *

* (Ibn Abi Shaybah narrated it in the Musannaf, Volume 1, Page 164, and Abu Yusuf on Page 16)

Imam Muhammad رضي الله عنه said, 'That is the verdict of Imam Abu Hanifa رضي الله عنه, and we adhere to it.'
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#13 [Permalink] Posted on 18th November 2011 08:25
9. Imam Muhammad رضي الله عنه said, 'Imam Abu Hanifa رضي الله عنه informed us, 'Hammad رضي الله عنه narrated to us from Ibrahim رضي الله عنه from Hanzalah ibn Nabatah [1] al-Ju'fi رضي الله عنه that Umar ibn al-Khattab رضي الله عنه said, 'Wiping over leather socks is permitted to the resident for a day and a night, and to the traveller for three days [2] and their nights, provided that you put them on [3] while you are in a state of purity.''

Imam Muhammad رضي الله عنه said, 'That is the verdict of Abu Hanifa رضي الله عنه, and we adhere to it.'

[1] This is a mistake. The original chain of transmission is Hanzalah رضي الله عنه from Nabatah al-Ju'fi رضي الله عنه.

[2] This is the position of Imam Abu Hanifa رضي الله عنه, Imam ash-Shafi'ee رضي الله عنه, and Imam Ahmad رضي الله عنه. Imam Malik رضي الله عنه said in the well-known transmission from him that there is no specific period of time that one wipes [over leather socks].

[3] The saying of Umar رضي الله عنه in Ma'ani al-Athar, 'Whoever enters his feet [in leather socks] while they are pure' clarifies his saying [here], 'While you are pure,' in which what is meant by purity is purity of the feet at the moment of donning [the leather socks], and it also covers both forms [of purity].
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#14 [Permalink] Posted on 18th November 2011 09:55
10. Muhammad said, "Abu Hanifa infromed us saying, 'Hammaad narrated to us that Salim ibn Abdullah ibn Umar said, "Abdullah ibn Umar رضي الله عنه and Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas رضي الله عنه differed about wiping over leather socks, and Sa'd رضي الله عنه said, 'I wipe [over leather socks],' and Abdullah said, 'It doesn't please me.' So they came to Umar ibn al-Khattaab رضي الله عنه and told him the story, and Umar رضي الله عنه said, 'Your perternal Uncle has greater understanding (fiqh) than you.'""


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#15 [Permalink] Posted on 18th November 2011 15:54
11. Muhammad said, "Abu Hanifa informed us from Hammaad from ash-Sha'bi from Ibrahim ibn Abi Musa al-Ash'ari from al-Mughirah bin Shu'bah, that he went out with the messenger of Allah (salallahu 'alahyi wa sallam) on a journey and the Messenger of Allah (salallahu 'alahyi wa sallam) went off to relieve himself. Then he came back, and he was wearing a long Byzantine outer garment with tight sleeves, which the messenger of Allah (salallahu 'alahyi wa sallam) rolled up because of the tightness of its sleeves. Al Mughirah said, 'So I began to pour waterfor him from a clay vessel which I had He (salallahu 'alahyi wa sallam) made his wudu for the prayer and wiped over his leather socks without taking them off, and then He (salallahu 'alahyi wa sallam) stepped forward and prayed.'"

Byzantine: That is Rumiyah and in most narrations from the two Shaykhs [al-Bukhari and Muslim] it was Sham but there is no contradiction between the two because Sham at the time was under Byzantine rule.

Also from this, the permissibility of wearing tight fitting close is implicit.

In another narration it is said that he roled his hands out from underneath the garment and cast the garment over the shoulder.
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