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#46 [Permalink] Posted on 2nd December 2010 13:09
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#47 [Permalink] Posted on 2nd December 2010 13:10
AI-Sheikh Hussain Basalama mentions in his book `The History of the Glorified Ka'bah', that, with the grace of Allah, he measured the Holy Ka bah in metres from within on Friday 23rd Dhul Qa da, 1352 H. It was 10.15 incites long from the middle of the Yemeni wall to the middle of the Shami wall, and 8.10 metres from the eastern to the middle of the western wall.
N.B. The standard length of the cubit is 48 centimetres.
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#48 [Permalink] Posted on 2nd December 2010 13:13
The Components of the Building Materials Used
for the Construction of the Holy Ka'bah




The construction of the Holy Ka'bah in its present form is the building by Sultan Murad IV, one of the Ottoman Sultans in 1040 H. This same construction has been renovated by the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques (may Allah protect him). It in a strong, solid building whose components are the large bluish-black stones taken from Makkah Al-Mukarramah mountains, the most important of which is AI-Ka bah mountain at the Shubeikah site.
The stones are not equal in size; some are large, others small. The largest stone was 190 centimetres long, half a metre wide and 28 centimetres thick. The smallest stone was half a metre long, and approximately 40 centimetres wide. The ends of these stones were mortared into the wall, the exposed rocks looking like rows of molars. On the base of the Holy Ka'bah from without, there is AI-Shadhrwan whose marble stones are different from those of the wall of the Holy Ka'bah.
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#49 [Permalink] Posted on 2nd December 2010 13:16
The Shadhrwan of the Holy Ka'bah

The Shadhrwan is a part of the wall of the Sacred House. It protrudes out of the base of the Holy Ka'bah, and is called a wrapping because it wraps around the Sacred House from three sides. The Shadhrwan renovated by the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques, was constructed by Sultan Murad IV when fie built the Holy Ka bah in 1040 H.

It was not remade but renovated by the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques. It consists of the sloping stones fixed to the bottom of the Holy Ka'bah, and surrounding it on three sides. The part opposite to Hijir Ismail (peace be upon him) is not part of the Shadhrwan. It is a rocky threshold II centimetres high and 40 centimetres wide.
Some circumambulators stand on the threshold of the door of the Holy Kabah, clinging to it in supplication.

The Shadhrwan was not set up in the Hijir because it represents the northern end of the Sacred House which extends six cubits and one hand span into Hijir Ismail (peace be upon him). The Shadhrwan was not set at the bottom of the door of the Holy Ka'bah so people could hang on to the threshold of the door of the Holy Ka'bah and AI-Multazam for supplication. Instead of the Shadhrwan, there is a threshold 3 metres and 45 centimetres long, slightly raised from the circumambulation area. The Shadhrwan is, in reality, a part of the Holy Ka'bah. It was said that it was first set up by Abdullah Ibn AI-Zubair (may Allah be pleased with them) on the foundations of Abraham (peace be upon him) to protect the wall of the Holy Ka'bah from water leaking into it. He tied the ropes of the curtains of the Holy Ka bah to rings fixed on it for this purpose. They were fixed to keep the circumarnbulators from being hurt and to avoid damage to the curtains of the Holy Ka'bah.
The Shadhrwan was renovated in 1098 H. by Abroad Pasha. All the stones of the Shadhrwan were made of the white, strong, solid marble in varying sizes. It consisted of 71 stones, eight of which were on the side of the door of the Holy Ka'bah to the north. These stones were of the most precious marble in the world. There were forty-one rings fixed to the Shadhrwan to fasten the ropes of the curtains of the Holy Ka'bah.
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#50 [Permalink] Posted on 2nd December 2010 13:18
The Door of the Holy Ka'bah

It takes time if we talk about the beginnings of the door of the Holy Ka bah and its set-up from the time of Tubba AI-Himairi, who constructed the first door for the Holy Ka'bah, to the present Saudi period. But it is worth mentioning that the last door was made according to the instructions given by the Ottoman Sultan, Murad Khan, in 1045 H. It was coated with 160 pounds of pure silver.

It is known that the door of the Holy Ka bah lies on the eastern side. It is now 2.25 metres above the circumambulation area. The door itself is 3.10 metres high and two metres wide and about half a metre thick. The door passed through several stages regarding its style, design, decorations and the type of the material used for manufacturing it. During the Saudi era, the specifications of the door developed and two doors were erected at two close periods:
The first door was made according to the instructions given by King Abdul Aziz Bin Abdul Rahman AI-Saud (may his soul rest in peace). The Door was plated with gold and silver, and decorated with the Divine Names of Allah. It was erected during a great celebration in 1370 H.

The second door was made according to the instructions given by King Khalid Bin Abdul Aziz AISaud'(may his soul rest in peace). While inside the Holy Ka'bah, he noticed the age and scratched condition of the door. He gave his instructions for making a new door. The door was made of pure gold and with new specifications. (It is worth mentioning that the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques, King Fahd Bin Abdul Aziz, Crown Prince at that time, gave his own instructions which led to this present work). Bab Al-Tawbah, which leads to the roof staircase was renewed, and the door of the Holy Ka'bah and the Tawbah door were recast in pure gold. The cost of this was 13,420,000 Riyals, which did not include the price of 280 kilograms of pure gold, secured by the Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency. The work continued for twelve months, commencing from the first Dhul Hijjah 1398 H. A special workshop was established for the manufacturing of this door.
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#51 [Permalink] Posted on 2nd December 2010 13:20
The Specifications of the Present Door

Certain specifications were made with regards to the best designs and the firmly-established styles of Islamic motifs. The latest techniques were used in the structure of the door in order to achieve the highest qualities in strength, overall design and perfection. This work would ensure that the door would not need any future maintenance. The design and the preparation of the door were executed by specialized technicians, taking into consideration the climatic factors, such as the extreme heat of the sun and heavy rains. The bottom of the door was furnished with a support panel to prevent rains from entering the Holy Ka'bah. It contains a special bar to fix on the threshold when locking it.

The Door Lock
A new lock for the door of the Holy Ka'bah was also made. The old lock was provided by Al-Sultan Abdul Hameed in 1309 H. The new lock was made to the same specifications as the old one, as it also suited the design of the new door, guaranteeing no need for any maintenance in the future.


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#52 [Permalink] Posted on 2nd December 2010 13:29
The inscriptions on the door

They were chosen from different harmonious components, the most important of which was the decoration of the surrounding frame. This decoration, at the level of the lock, heightens its focus because the lock of the Holy Ka' bah has a distinctively traditional and functional shape.
At the two upper corners of the door, unique decorations were carved in the shape of an arch :noun(] the inscription:

'Allah Jalla Jalaluh', the name of the Prophet (blessings and peace be upon him) and the following Qur'anic verses:
Enter it in peace and security. (15:46)
Say; "My Lord! Let my entry be by the gate of Truth and Honour, likewise let my exit be by the gate of Truth and Honour; and grant me from You an authority to aid (me)"( 17: 80)
Your Lord hath inscribed for Himself (the rule of) Mercy ( 6:54)
And your Lord says; " Call on Me; I will answer your (prayer)" (4(1:60)


Following these Qur'anic verses, there were two medallions set in square panels, in the middle of each there is the following writing:

"There is no god but Allah, Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah".

In the lower corners of the square panels, the two rings of the door were fixed, and together with the door lock, they Dorm a harmonious, symmetrical design.
Between the two rings and the door lock, there are raised, rectangular inserts used for separating the various kinds of decorations. The inserts are of different sizes and the final, overall effect is something beautiful to look at. Under the two panels, the following Qur'anic verse is written;

Say: "O my servants who have transgressed against their souls! despair not of the Mercy of Allah: for Allah forgives all sins: for He is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful" (39:53)

In the middle of the two square panels, directly under the door lock,
"Surat AI-Fatiha" is inscribed in another pair of medallions. Under these, there are historical notes done in smaller handwriting. The previous door was made during the reign of the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques, King Abdul Aziz Bin Abdul Ralunan AI-Saud in 1363 H. Below this, another door was made by the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques, King Khalid Bin Abdul Aziz AISaud in 1399 H. As part of its historical note, on the right leaf of the door, the following expression is inscribed, "It was inaugurated, with the Grace of Allah, by King Khalid Bin Abdul Aziz AI-Saud on the twenty-second of Dhul Qa'da, 1399 H". On the left leaf is written; "It was made by Ahmad Ibrahim Badr in Makkah AI-Mukarramah, designed by Muneer AI-Andi". The calligraphy is by Abdul Rahman Amin. A particularly fine motif was made on the frame of the door which was fitted on the left leaf.

The outline around each door is delicately ornamented and hung in such a way to best exhibit the decorations and the raised plates carrying fifteen Divine Names of Allah. The plates are as follows:
On the top of the door: O, You Whose Capacity is Limitless. O, You Who Repels Those Things Detrimental to His Creation. O, You Responsible for Good.
On the right side: O, You, the All-Knowing. O, You, the Omniscient. O, You, the Most Forbearing. O, You, the Great. O, You, the Wise. O, You, the Compassionate.
On the left side: O, You, the Rich anti the Enriching One. O, You, Worthy of All Praise. O. You, the Glorified One. O, You, Glory to Thee. O, You, Whose Help can be Sought.


These pure gold plates are carved and fixed to the wooden base. This wooden base is made up of three sections. In the first section, there is a continuous franc decoration, and on the others there are Qur'anic verses. ( 15, pp. 88-90).
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#53 [Permalink] Posted on 2nd December 2010 13:53
The Black Stone

AI-Tirmidhi related on the authority of Ibn Abbas (may Allah be pleased with them), that the Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace be upon him) said, "The Black Stone descended from Paradise much whiter than milk, but it was turned black by the sins committed by mankind." (5, v. 2, p. 112) AI-Tirmidhi said it was a good and sound Hadith. It is sunnah that one touches the Black Stone and kisses it.

Al-Bukhari and AI-Tirmidhi related on the authority of Amir Ibn Rabia' who said, "I saw Omar Ibn Al-Khattab kissing the Black Stone, and I heard him say, `I know well that you are simply a stone, and have no power to confer a benefit or to do harm. Had I not seen the Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace be upon him) kissing you, I would not have kissed you."' (5, v. 2, p. 175).

AI-Bukhari and Al-Tirmidhi said it was a good and sound Hadith.

Ibn Khuzaima and Ibn Habban, in their two Sahihs, related that the Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace be upon him) said that the Black Stone would be resurrected on the Day of Judgement with two eyes and a tongue, and would be a witness to those who sincerely touched and kissed it. (8, v. 2, p. 193) Al-Tirmidhi related that it was a good and sound Hadith.

Muslim related on the authority of Ibn Jabir Ibn Abdullah (may Allah be pleased with them), that they arrived at Makkah at noon when the Prophet (blessings and peace be upon him) made his she-camel kneel down at the door of the Mosque. He entered the Mosque and started tawaf at the Black Stone. When he touched it, the tears came down his cheeks. He mentioned the Hadith and said, "He did Ramat in three rounds and walked the remaining four. After finishing tawaf, he kissed the Black Stone and put his hands on it and then rubbed his face with them." Ibn Khuzaima said it was a good and sound Hadith.

Omar Ibn Al-Khattab (may Allah be pleased with him) made it clear that people should not regard touching and kissing the Black Stone the same as the Arabs during Al-Jahiliyya period. He maintained that kissing the Black Stone and touching the Yemeni Corner were a kind of glorification to Allah, the Almighty, and a carrying out of His Prophet's traditions. This is one of the religious rituals that Allah, the Supreme, commanded people to hold in high esteem. Allah, the Supreme, says: You haveindeed in the Messenger of Allah, an excellent example (33: 21).
And the Prophet (blessings and peace be upon him) said, "Follow me in performing your religion' rituals".
Abu Yala related that Ibn Omar said,"I saw Omar Ibn Al-Khattab kissing the Black Stone and prostrating towards it". It was also related by AIBazzaz as a good and sound Hadith. (9, v. 12, p. 35)

Many Orientalists alleged that the Black Stone was a meteor that fell to earth. What the Orientalists say is based only on hearsay and supposition and, therefore, should not be taken for granted. But what the Muslims know is based on sound knowledge. It is maintained that the truth cannot be refuted by suspicion. (there was a comment here that i had not included because it had ne references: it was about the hand of Allah)



This is the picture of the Black Stone where eight pieces are visible. It was drawn by the Calligrapher AI-Sheikh Muhammad Tahir AI-Kurdi who put transparent paper on the Black Stone itself and drew each piece separately. This took place on the 1st of Rabi AI-Awwal, 1376 H


The Black Stone is one of the White Rubies of Paradise and it was turned black by the sins of the polytheists. It will be resurrected on the Day of Judgement as a witness to those who touched and kissed it with good faith. It was said that the Black Stone was placed in Mt. Abu Qabis until it was brought to Abraham (peace be upon him) and was put in the south-castem corner of the Holy Ka'bah one and a half metres above ground level. It is encircled by a frame of pure silver in order to protect it. It cannot be accurately described because the part we see is actually made up of eight small pieces, the biggest of which is in the size of a date, embedded in a wax mixture.
Some say there are 15 pieces, but thin the other seven pieces are deeply covered over in the brownish paste mixture, which is also touched by the circumambulators. This paste is a mixture of wax musk and ambergris put on the top of the Black Stone. Muhammad Ibn Nafie AI-Khuzaie saw the Black Stone on the day when it was taken by the Qarmatians in the fourth century Hijrah. The top of the Black Stone was black but the rest of it was white. The length was about a cubit. Ibn I'llan Al-Makki, one of the scholars at that time, saw the Black Stone during the reign of the Ottoman Sultan Murad. Its length was then half a cubit and its width was a third of a cubit. It was white in colour but its top was black because of the misdeeds done by mankind. If the sins affect solid stone, their effects on the heart are even greater.
The first who encircled the Black Stone with silver rings was Abdullah Ibn AI-Zubair (may Allah be pleased with them). Then other caliphs and wealthy people followed suit and made the frame from silver and gold. The last who donated a frame of pure silver for the Black Stone, before the Saudi Government. was Al-Sultan Muhammad Rashad Khan in 1331 H. King Abdul Aziz (may his soul rest in peace) repaired part of it in 1366 H. In Sha ban, 1375 H., King Saud replaced it with a new frame made of sterling silver.
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#54 [Permalink] Posted on 2nd December 2010 13:55
The Yemeni Corner

The Yemeni Corner lies in the south-western part of the Holy Ka bah. It is the corner opposite the Black Stone at the other end of the southern wall. It has been called the Yemeni corner because it faces Yemen. It is touched with the hand, not kissed, in the tradition of the Prophet (blessings and peace be upon him). One of its virtues is that it was built on the first foundations of the House raised by Abraham and Ismail (peace be upon them).
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#55 [Permalink] Posted on 2nd December 2010 13:56
The Waterspout of the Holy Ka'bah

The Quraish were the first to fix a waterspout in the Holy Ka'bah when they rebuilt it thirty-five years after the birth of Prophet Muhammad (blessings and peace be upon him). The Holy Ka'bah was without a ceiling as previously mentioned, but when Abdullah Ibn AI-Zubair (may Allah be pleased with them) reconstructed it, he fixed a waterspout that poured into Hijir Ismail as the Quraish (lid. AI-I-htjjaj Ibn Yusuf demolished what Abdullah Ibn AI-Zubair (may Allah be pleased with them) added to the Quraish construction on the foundations of Abraham (peace be upon him). He too fixed the waterspout towards the north where it poured into Hijir Ismail (peace be upon him).
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#56 [Permalink] Posted on 2nd December 2010 13:58
AI-Azrayi stated that the waterspout was four cubits with a height of eight fingers and it was coated in gold plate. Al-Waleed Ibn Abdul Malik added a waterspout of gold, but it was changed for two reasons: The first was that when it was damaged it was replaced by a new one, the second was that some kings and wealthy people donated waterspouts to the Holy Ka'bah, thus, the old ones were often replaced by new ones.
The present waterspout was made by Al-Sultan Abdul Majeed Khan, the son of AI-Sultan Mahmoud Khan, in Constantinople, and it was brought and installed in 1276 H. It was gold plated and some minor repairs were made to the upper nails that prevented the pigeons from perching on it. This took place when King Saud renovated the roof of the Holy Ka'bah.
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#57 [Permalink] Posted on 2nd December 2010 14:01
The Kiswah of the Holy Ka'bah

The kiswah of the Holy Ka'bah is the decorative cloth covering. The kiswah of the Holy Ka'bah has passed through several stages since the construction of the Holy Ka'bah by Abraham and Ismail (peace be upon them). This was due to various social and economic factors. Covering the Holy Ka'bah with various materials has always been done with the aim of glorifying it and obeying Allah, the Almighty. There are various stories about the first person who furnished the Holy Ka'bah with a kiswah.

Some scholars state that Ismail (peace be upon him) was the first person to cover the Holy Ka'bah with a kiswah. Others state that Adnan Ibn Id, the great grandfather of the Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace be upon him) did it. It is certain that Tubba' Al-Himairi, the King of Yemen, was the first person to cover the Holy Ka'bah with khusuf. Several other persons followed in the pre-Islamic period. This was one of the pre-Islamic religious obligations.

One of those was Abu Rabia Ibn Abdullah AI-Makhzumi who used to alternate covering the Holy Ka'bah with a kiswah a year and all Quraish another year. Then the Prophet (blessings and peace be upon him) covered it in Yemeni cloaks when it was burnt down due to a spark that flew off while a woman was incensing it. The Rightly-Guided Caliphs, Abu Bakr, Omar and Othman (may Allah be pleased with them) covered it with an Egyptian cloth called Gubati. After the Rightly-Guided Caliphate, Umayyads, Abbasids, Mamlukes and Turks competed in covering the Holy Ka'bah.

The coverings were put on one over the other and so the kiswahs piled up on the Holy Ka'bah. An Abbasid Caliph was performing Hajj in 160 H., when the gatekeepers of the Holy Ka'bah drew his attention to this fact and accordingly he instructed that only one covering should be put over the Holy Ka'bah at a time. This has continued up till present day.

Since the reign of Muhammad Ali Pasha, who established a government administration for manufacturing the kiswah, the Egyptian Government used to finance the cost of manufacturing the kiswah. This continued until the reign of King Abdul Aziz Bin Abdul Rahman Al-Saud who issued an order in 1346 H. to establish a special factory in Makkah AI-Mukarramah for the manufacture of the kiswah of the Holy Ka'bah.
The factory was inaugurated in the middle of the same year. The first kiswah was produced and this great honour was bestowed upon the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The factory continues to produce the kiswah of the Holy Ka'bah. To keep abreast of the tcxtile industry and technology, King Faisal issued a royal decree in 1392 H. to technically develop the kiswah factory to produce the best and most beautiful kiswah at Umm AI-Jud in Makkah AI-Mukarramah.It was inaugurated by the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques, King Fahd Bin Abdul Aziz, when he was Crown Prince, in Rabic At-Thani, 1397 H. - March 26th, 1977.
The factor started with three main sections, the belt section, the manual weaving section and the dyeing section. Three other sections were later added, the machine weaving section, the printing and flag section and the interior curtain section.
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#58 [Permalink] Posted on 2nd December 2010 14:02
Stages of the Manufacture of the Kiswah

The kiswah manufacture passes through several stages, the most important of which are:

1. First is the dyeing stage, where raw silk in skeins of thread are imported and dyed according to the required colours. Black is the colour of the exterior covering of the Holy Ka'bah, and green is the colour of the interior kiswah. Dark red is the colour of the belt of the Prophet's Holy Room. All work is done according to the most advanced dyeing techniques.

2. The second stage is the weaving stage. In the past, the factory depended on manual weaving, but now machine weaving is used. Manual weaving however is an old, valued skill that is still preserved. The weaving material used in the manufacture of the kiswah of the Holy Ka'bah is divided into two categories:

(a) Plain weaving is used for the belt and curtain later embroidered with threads and put under the kiswah.

(b) The jacquard method weaves expressions and Qur'anic verses directly into the cloth. It is delicate, technical work, requiring skilled craftsmen.

3. The third stage was printing, where designs, by embroidering, are transferred to the cloth by the turb style. It was an obsolete, time consuming method that was not efficacious. The factory administration introduced a machine printing division. This facilitated easier work and sped up production which was varied and refined. The new process uses shablon or silk screening.

4. The fourth stage is embroidery work which takes up the most important part of the covering of the Holy Ka'bah. It uses Islamic designs and Qur'anic verses embroidered with silver and gold threads. The unique stuffing process is done manually because it is impossible to do this highly refined work mechanically. This gold embroidery work is padded and raised up to two centimetres.

5. The fifth and final stage is the assembly, where the jacquard cloth panels are assembled to form the four sides of the kiswah. The belt and the curtain are fixed to the kiswah which is then put over the Holy Ka'bah.
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#59 [Permalink] Posted on 2nd December 2010 14:04

The Writing on the Kiswah of the Holy Ka'bah



The kiswah is woven from pure, raw silk. dyed black, and with the following statements woven into it:



(i) There ii no god but Allah, Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.

(ii) Allah is the Great, Powerful and Sublime.

(iii) Praise and Glory be to Allah.

(iv) Praise be to My Glorious Lord.

(v) O, You Compassionate! O, You Benefactor!




All these are repeatedly written over the cloth in a zigzag pattern.

The length of the cloth is 14.5 metres. On the upper third, the-s the belt of the kiswah, which is 95 centimetres wide. Under the belt on the comers, Surat ? Al-lkhlas is inscribed on an embellished square of ,3 Islamic designs. At the same height, under the belt, as well, six Qur'anic verses are written inside separate, rectangular, embroidered frames. In between these framed Qur'anic verses. the following Divine Names; are worked in lamp-shaped outlines:

(i) O, You the Sustainer, the Everliving!

(ii) O, You the Merciful, the Compassionate!

(iii) Praise be to Allah, the Cherisher and Sustainer of the Worlds.

All work under the belt is inscribed in compound, Thulth calligraphy, embroidered in raised form and covered by gilded silver thread. These pieces were introduced during the flourishing Saudi era. (16, p. 76)


 

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#60 [Permalink] Posted on 2nd December 2010 14:10
Expenditure and Manpower

The total expenses of one kiswah of the Holy Ka'bah are seventeen million Saudi Riyals, including all overhead costs. One kiswah needs 670 kilograms of pure silk which covers the surface of the Holy Ka'bah. It is made into 47 panels of cloth, the length of each is 14 metres and the width 95 centimeres. The number of employees has increased from 16 at the founding of the factory, to more than 240. The expenditure varies because the prices of silk, raw materials, manpower and machinery are constantly changing.

The Interior Curtain of the Holy Ka'bah
A separate department within the factory of the kiswah of the Holy Ka'bah was established to manufacture the interior curtain of the Holy Ka'bah and the Prophet's Room. The work is done manually because of the accuracy, skill and very high technical standard demanded. The manufacture of the interior curtain of the Holy Ka'bah passes through several stages. starting with the preparation of the silk. printing of the designs, writing on the cloth and embroidering on it, with the particular Qur'anic verses in threads of gold and silver.

The Curtain of the Door of the Holy Ka'bah

The curtain is the exterior veil hung on the door of the Holy Ka'bah. A decorated curtain was first put on the door of the Holy Ka'bah in 810 H. It has remained there since that date except for the years 816 - 818H. The curtain is made of black silk and lined with a strong. green, silk cloth. Some Qur'anic verses and Islamic motits are embroidered in gilded silver thread by the traditional raised method. Under the Qur'anic verses and in the same calligraphic style and design. the following statement is written: "This curtain is made in Makkah AI-Mukarramah and has been presented to the Holy Ka'bah by the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques. King Fahd Bin Abdul Aziz A1Saud".
The curtain is six and a half metres long. three and a half metres wide. and consists of five pieces assembled vertically and lined with cloth.
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