Forum Menu - Click/Swipe to open
 

Islam In China

You have contributed 0.0% of this topic

Thread Tools
Topic Poll
» MashaAllah.
100%
10 members | 0 guests
» Doesnt bother me!
0%
0 members | 0 guests
Appreciate
Topic Appreciation
abu mohammed, sweetmuslimahk1, Seifeddine-M, Taalibah, london786, Abdur Rahman ibn Awf, abuzayd2k
2 guests appreciate this topic.
Rank Image
abu mohammed's avatar
London
20,904
Brother
7,005
abu mohammed's avatar
#31 [Permalink] Posted on 25th January 2011 13:33
Youtube Video


A very quick guide through the History of China.
report post quote code quick quote reply
+1 -0Like x 1
back to top
Rank Image
abu mohammed's avatar
London
20,904
Brother
7,005
abu mohammed's avatar
#32 [Permalink] Posted on 25th January 2011 13:39
Muslim groups in China

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The vast majority of China's Muslims are Sunni Muslims, though members of other Muslim groups exist, particularly those of Sufi orders.

report post quote code quick quote reply
+1 -0
back to top
Rank Image
abu mohammed's avatar
London
20,904
Brother
7,005
abu mohammed's avatar
#33 [Permalink] Posted on 25th January 2011 13:39
Hanafi Sunni Gedimu
Gedimu or Qadim is the earliest school of Islam in China. It is a Hanafi non-Sufi school of the Sunni tradition. Its supporters are centered around local mosques, which function as relatively independent units. It is numerically the largest Islamic school of thought in China and most common school of Islam among the Hui. Since the introduction of Islam, first during the Tang Dynasty in China, it continued to the Ming Dynasty with no splits. At the end of the Ming and early Qing Dynasty Sufism was introduced to China.

Its members were sometimes extremely hostile to Sufis, Ikhwanis, and Wahhabis, like the Sufi Jahriyya and Yihewani. They engaged in fights and brawls against Sufis and Wahhabis.

report post quote code quick quote reply
+1 -0
back to top
Rank Image
abu mohammed's avatar
London
20,904
Brother
7,005
abu mohammed's avatar
#34 [Permalink] Posted on 25th January 2011 13:44
Sufi Groups

Islamic scholar Ma Tong recorded that the 6,781,500 Hui in China were predominately members of Sufi groups. According to Tong, 58.2 % were Gedimu, 21% Yihewani, 10.9% Jahriyya, 7.2 % Khuffiya, 1.4% Qadariyya, and 0.7 % Kubrawiyya.

Sufi Kubrawiyya
Kubrawiyya (in Chinese Kuburenye/Kubulinye) was a Sufi sect which is claimed to have arrived in China During the Ming dynasty, evidence shows that they existed since the Qing Kangxi Emperors reign. A descended of Muhammad, Muhuyindeni went to China, reaching the Dawantou village in Dongxiang around Linxia. The village was entirely composed of Han Chinese surnamed Zhang, all of the same clan. He converted several Zhangs in Yinwa to Islam, to his Sufi menhuan in Dawantou, while in Yangwa the Zhang family people did not convert, and continued to practice Chinese Religion. All the Han Zhangs and the Hui Zhangs, being of the same family, celebrated New Year together up to 1949.

Sufi Khafiya
Ma Laichi established the Hua Si school (menhuan) - the core of the Khufiyya movement in Chinese Islam. The name of the movement - a Chinese form of the Arabic "Khafiyya", i.e. "the silent ones" - refers to its adherents' emphasis on silent dhikr (invocation of God's name). The Khufiyya teachings were characterized by stronger participation in the society, as well as veneration of saints and seeking inspiration at their tombs.

Ma Laichi spent 32 years spreading his teaching among the Muslim Hui and Salar people in Gansu and Qinghai.

The Khuffiya is a Nashqbandi Sufi order.

Khuffiya Sufis were sometimes hostile to the Ikhwan and other Sufis like the Jahriyya and the Xidaotang, engaging in deadly brawls and fights against them. Its members also called the Xidaotang foundeer, Ma Qixi, an infidel.


Sufi Jahriyya

Jahriyya is a menhuan (Sufi order) in China. Founded in the 1760s by Ma Mingxin, it has been active in the late 18th and 19th centuries in the then Gansu Province (also including today's Qinghai and Ningxia), when its followers participated in a number of conflicts with other Muslim groups and in several rebellions against the China's ruling Qing Dynasty. Its members later cooled down, and many of them like Ma Shaowu became loyal to the chinese government, crushing other muslim rebels like the Uyghurs.

The Jahriyya order was founded by the Gansu Chinese-speaking Muslim scholar Ma Mingxin soon after his return to China in 1761, after 16 years of studying in Mecca and Yemen.

Jahriyya is a Naqshbandi Sufi order.

Its adherents were hostile to the other Sufi order, the Khafiya, engaging in fights. The rivalry was so intense that some members took it personally, Ma Shaowu, a Jahriyya had a rivalry against Ma Fuxing, a Khafiyya, even though they both worked for the chinese government.

report post quote code quick quote reply
+1 -0Like x 1
back to top
Rank Image
abu mohammed's avatar
London
20,904
Brother
7,005
abu mohammed's avatar
#35 [Permalink] Posted on 25th January 2011 13:45
Xidaotang

Xidaotang is a Chinese-Islamic school of thought. It was founded by Ma Qixi (1857-1914), a Chinese muslim from Lintan in Gansu, at the beginning of the 20th Century. Their teaching of Islamic faith is relatively strongly fused with traditional culture.

It is mainly distributed in Lintan and Hezheng County in northwest China's Gansu Province, and also has followers in the province of Qinghai, the Autonomous Region Xinjiang and the province of Sichuan. It is a Hanafi school of the Sunni tradition similar to Qadim (Gedimu) has included Jahriyya elements.

Its founder, Ma Qixi, was heavily influenced by Chinese culture and religion like Confucianism, and Daoism, taking heavily from the Han Kitab, and he even took cues from Laozi, founder of Daoism.

Khafiya Sufi leaders called the Xidaotang adherents infidels.

report post quote code quick quote reply
+1 -0
back to top
Rank Image
abu mohammed's avatar
London
20,904
Brother
7,005
abu mohammed's avatar
#36 [Permalink] Posted on 25th January 2011 13:46
Yihewani
Yihewani (Ikhwan) is a Hanafi, non-Sufi school of the Sunni tradition. It is also referred to as "new sect" or "latest sect". It is mainly in Qinghai, Ningxia and Gansu (there in Linxia) and distributed in Beijing, Shanghai, Henan, Shandong and Hebei. It was the end of the 19th century when the Dongxiang imam Ma Wanfu (1849-1934) from the village of Guoyuan in Hezhou (now the Dongxiang Autonomous County was founded in Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu Province) - who had studied in Mecca and was influenced by the Wahabi movement. After his return to Gansu and he founded the movement with the so-called ten major Ahong. The school rejected Sufism. It claimed that the rites and ceremonies not stand in line with the Quran and the Hadith should be abolished. It iss against grave and Murschid (leader/teacher) worship, and advocates against the preaching and da'wa done in Chinese.

The Khafiya Sufi Qing dynasty General Ma Anliang persecuted and executed Yihewani members, because they were considered part of the outlawed "New Teaching", in contrast to the Sufi Khafiya and Gedimu Sunni "Old Teaching".

Hu Songshan, a former Sufi who converted to the Yihewani sect, reformed the Yihewani, making it less hostile to Chinese culture, and integrated modern teaching, and Chinese nationalism into Yihewani teachings.

report post quote code quick quote reply
+1 -0
back to top
Rank Image
abu mohammed's avatar
London
20,904
Brother
7,005
abu mohammed's avatar
#37 [Permalink] Posted on 25th January 2011 13:48
Wahhabi/Salafi
Wahabbism is intensely opposed (I wonder why)by Hui in China, by the Hanafi Sunni Gedimu and Sufi Khafiya and Jahriyya. The opposition is so much so that even the Yihewani Chinese sect, which is fundamentalist and was founded by Ma Wanfu who was originally inspired by the Wahhabis, reacted with hostility to Ma Debao and Ma Zhengqing, who attempted to introduce Wahhabism/Salafism as the main form of Islam. They were branded as traitors, and Wahhabi teachings were deemed as heresy by the Yihewani leaders. Ma Debao established a Salafi/Wahhabi order, called the Sailaifengye (Salafi) menhuan in Lanzhou and Linxia, a completely separate sect.

Salafis have a reputation for radicalism among the Hanafi Sunni Gedimu and Yihewani. Sunni Hui avoid Salafis, even if they are family members, and they constantly fight.
report post quote code quick quote reply
+1 -0
back to top
Rank Image
abu mohammed's avatar
London
20,904
Brother
7,005
abu mohammed's avatar
#38 [Permalink] Posted on 25th January 2011 13:51
Shias in China

Shia Chinese Muslims are mostly Ismailis including Tajiks of the Tashkurgan and Sariqul areas of Xingjian. The Shias of the Imami branch are numerous in Yunnan and Guangxi provinces. This largely due to the Shia practice of religious dissimulation or Taqiya.

Some Persian and Arab legends record that Zaidis fled to China from the Umayyads during the 8th century ce.
report post quote code quick quote reply
+1 -0
back to top
Rank Image
abu mohammed's avatar
London
20,904
Brother
7,005
abu mohammed's avatar
#39 [Permalink] Posted on 25th January 2011 14:01
Infighting between sects

Yaqub Beg's Uyghur forces declared a Jihad against Hui under T'o Ming during the Dungan revolt. The Uyghurs thought that the Hui Muslims were Shafi`i, and since the Uyghurs were Hanafi that they should wage war against them. Yaqub Beg enlisted non-Muslim Han Chinese militia under Hsu Hsuehkung in order to fight against the Hui. T'o Ming's forces were defeated by Yaqub, who planned to conquer Dzungharia. Yaqub intended to seize all Dungan territory.

As mentioned in the above sections on each sect, fighting between them is common. It was Muslim inter-sect fighting that led to the Dungan revolt of 1862-1877, the Dungan revolt of 1895, and other rebellions.

The Khafiya Sufi General Ma Anliang, especially hated the Yihewani leader Ma Wanfu, so much that when the Han general Yang Zengxin captured Ma Wanfu, Ma Anliang arranged to have him shipped to Gansu so he could execute him. As Qing authority broke down in China, the Gedimu Sunnis and Khafiya Sufis went on a vicious campaign to murder Ma Wanfu and stamp out his Wahhabi inspired teachings. The leaders of menhuans attacked Ma Wanfu, and the Gedimu requested that the Qing governor in Lanzhou inflict punishment upon Ma Wanfu.

The Kuomintang general Ma Bufang, a Sufi Hui who backed the Yihewani (Ikhwan) Muslims, persecuted the Salafi/Wahhabis. The Yihewani forced the Salafis into hiding. They were not allowed to move or worship openly. The Yihewani had become secular and Chinese nationalist, and they considered the Salafiyya to be "heterodox" (xie jiao) and followers of foreigners' teachings (waidao). Only after the Communists took over were the Salafis allowed to come out and worship openly.

The Gedimu forbade Yihewani (sunnaiti) from worshipping at their mosques, using knives to threaten them. They accused the other of being non muslims, and reportedly perceived each other as enemies. Intermarriage between the two were forbidden and family members belonging to either of the two split apart.

The Gedimu and Yihewani (Sunnaiti) accused the Salafis (santai) of being extremist (guoji), opposing their reform.

Jingtang Jiaoyu is a form of Islamic education, heavily influenced by Chinese culture, which the Gedimu muslims pride themselves in learning. Jingtang Jiaoyu has been severely criticized for prounouncing Arabic incorrectly. Due to the liminations of Chinese characters, it propagates wrong pronunciation in Arabic. Many Hui who used it said Salaam Aleikun instead of Salaam Alaikum.

The Hanafi Sunni Gedimu cling fiercely to Chinese customs and the Jingtang Jiaoyu method of education, refusing to pronounce Arabic correctly even when learning of the correct pronunciation. Hanfi Sunni Sunnaiti's (Yihewani adherents) critize the Gedimu for practicing Islamic customs influenced by Chinese culture, including Jingtang Jiaoyu, Sunnaiti's pride themselves on speaking correct Arabic, accusing the Gedimu muslims of practicing Han and Buddhist customs and "Chinese Arabic". One Sunnaiti Imam said of the Gedimu, "blindly followed the traditions of their ancestors".
report post quote code quick quote reply
+1 -0
back to top
Rank Image
abu mohammed's avatar
London
20,904
Brother
7,005
abu mohammed's avatar
#40 [Permalink] Posted on 25th January 2011 16:38

"abu mohammed" wrote:

According to China Muslims' traditional legendary accounts, Islam was first brought to China by Hadhrat Sa'ad ibn abi Waqqas رضي الله عنه. As reported by Al-Bayhaqi, Prophet Muhammad (SAW)pronounced: "Seek for knowledge even unto China".

There have been references that this Hadith is fabricated/weak.

Allah knows best, The Sahaba went and spread the Deen. Thats what counts for me.

The Prophet even told us that there will be someone from his Ummah, of Persia, who will attain knowledge even if it is on the furthest planet (According to most Ulama, it indicates Imam Abu Hanifa).

Seeking knowledge is Fard upon us any way.

report post quote code quick quote reply
+1 -0
back to top
Rank Image
Seifeddine-M's avatar
London
4,762
Brother
4,084
Seifeddine-M's avatar
#41 [Permalink] Posted on 25th January 2011 16:54
report post quote code quick quote reply
+1 -0Like x 1
back to top
Rank Image
Seifeddine-M's avatar
London
4,762
Brother
4,084
Seifeddine-M's avatar
#42 [Permalink] Posted on 25th January 2011 16:58
abu mohammed wrote:
"abu mohammed" wrote:
According to China Muslims' traditional legendary accounts, Islam was first brought to China by Hadhrat Sa'ad ibn abi Waqqas رضي الله عنه. As reported by Al-Bayhaqi, Prophet Muhammad (SAW)pronounced: "Seek for knowledge even unto China".
There have been references that this Hadith is fabricated/weak. Allah knows best, The Sahaba went and spread the Deen. Thats what counts for me. Seeking knowledge is Fard upon us any way.


The Prophet (salallahu 'alayhi wasallam) said, "Seek knowledge even in China,"

Hadith HASAN MASHHR - "fair, famous." Note: Applied to a hadith, the term mashhr refers to a type of ahad narration that has five to nine narrators at each link of its chain and is therefore nearly mass-narrated (tawatur). Note that this is not an index of its authenticity as a mashhr hadith may be either sahh, hasan, or da`f. Also, the label of mashhr is sometimes given to merely famous narrations which are not nearly-mass-narrated.

Narrated from Anas by al-Bayhaqi in Shu`ab al-Imaan and al-Madkhal, Ibn `Abd al-Barr in Jami` Bayaan al-`Ilm, and al-Khatib through three chains at the opening of his al-Rihla fi Talab al-Hadith (p. 71-76 #1-3) where Shaykh Nur al-Din `Itr declares it weak (da`f). Also narrated from Ibn `Umar, Ibn `Abbas, Ibn Mas`ud, Jabir, and Abu Sa`id al-Khudri radiallahu anhum, all through very weak chains. The hadith master al-Mizzi said it has so many chains that it deserves a grade of fair (hasan), as quoted by al-Sakhawi in al-Maqaasid al-Hasana. Al-`Iraqi in his Mughni `an Haml al-Asfar similarly stated that some scholars declared it sound (sahh) for that reason, even if al-Hakim and al-Dhahabi correctly said no sound chain is known for it. Ibn `Abd al-Barr's "Salafi" editor Abu al-Ashbal al-Zuhayri declares the hadith hasan in Jami` Bayaan al-`Ilm (1:23ff.) but all the above fair gradings actually apply to the wording: "Seeking knowledge is an obligation upon every Muslim."

The first to declare the "China" hadith forged seems to be Ibn al-Qaysarani (d. 507) in his Ma`rifa al-Tadhkira (p. 101 #118). This grading was kept by Ibn al-Jawzi in his Mawdu`at but rejected, among others, by al-Suyuti in al-La'ali' (1:193), al-Mizzi, al-Dhahabi in Talkhis al-Wahiyat, al-Bajuri's student Shams al-Din al-Qawuqji (d. 1305) in his book al-Lu'lu' al-Marsu` (p. 40 #49), and notably by the Indian muhaddith Muhammad Taahir al-Fattani (d. 986) in his Tadhkira al-Mawdu`at (p. 17) in which he declares it hasan.

Al-Munawi, like Ibn `Abd al-Barr before him, gave an excellent explanation of the hadith in his Fayd al-Qadir (1:542). See also its discussion in al-`Ajluni's Kashf al-Khafa' under the hadith: "Seeking knowledge is an obligation upon every Muslim," itself a fair (hasan) narration in Ibn Maajah because of its many chains as stated by al-Mizzi, although al-Nawawi in his Fatawa (p. 258) declared it weak while Dr. Muhammad `Ajaj al-Khaatib in his notes on al-Khatib's al-Jami` (2:462-463) declared it "sound due to its witness-chains" (sahh li ghayrih). Cf. al-Sindi's Hashya Sunan Ibn Maajah (1:99), al-Munawi's Fayd al-Qadir (4:267) and al-Sakhaawi's al-Maqaasid al-Hasana (p. 275-277).

report post quote code quick quote reply
+1 -0
back to top
Rank Image
Seifeddine-M's avatar
London
4,762
Brother
4,084
Seifeddine-M's avatar
#43 [Permalink] Posted on 25th January 2011 16:59
report post quote code quick quote reply
+1 -0
back to top
Rank Image
abu mohammed's avatar
London
20,904
Brother
7,005
abu mohammed's avatar
#44 [Permalink] Posted on 25th January 2011 17:01
JazakAllah
report post quote code quick quote reply
No post ratings
back to top
Rank Image
Seifeddine-M's avatar
London
4,762
Brother
4,084
Seifeddine-M's avatar
#45 [Permalink] Posted on 25th January 2011 17:04
abu mohammed wrote:
"abu mohammed" wrote:
According to China Muslims' traditional legendary accounts, Islam was first brought to China by Hadhrat Sa'ad ibn abi Waqqas رضي الله عنه. As reported by Al-Bayhaqi, Prophet Muhammad (SAW)pronounced: "Seek for knowledge even unto China".
There have been references that this Hadith is fabricated/weak. Allah knows best, The Sahaba went and spread the Deen. Thats what counts for me.Seeking knowledge is Fard upon us any way.


Saudi Salafi opinion of this hadith: With regard to the hadeeth mentioned, "Seek knowledge even if you have to go as far as China, for seeking knowledge is a duty on every Muslim," Shaykh al-Albaani said in Da'eef al-Jaami': "(It is) fabricated." (no. 906).

The proven hadeeth is that which was narrated by Ibn Maajah from the hadeeth of Anas ibn Maalik, who said: "The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: 'Seeking knowledge is obligatory upon every Muslim.'" (220. Classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh Sunan Ibn Maajah. What is meant by knowledge here is knowledge of sharee'ah (Islamic knowledge).

report post quote code quick quote reply
+1 -0
back to top