In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful
Let me begin by mentioning a few important things:
- Tajweed has nothing to do with a 'good voice'. Due to our ignorance, many reciters with good voices are given the title Qari. Whereas in reality, as they are observing most rules of tajweed, they are making many major mistakes in recitation. A friend of ours from S. Africa, Moulana Ahmed Moola prefers to call these people Tarkaari. (The Gujarati word for 'Saalan' - If you don't know what that is, then you need to go to Mumtaz in Bradford, or Bukhara in Samlesbury - Or Chutneys in San Francisco)
- Tajweed can only be studied an obtained by sitting in front of a teacher. Not on an audio CD, dvd, or a computer program. - As Mufti Abdurrahman ibn Yusuf (who studied by our tajweed teacher for one year) put it, Qari Mohammad Siddique Falahi teaches his students to be critics. Tajweed is an art only obtainable after your mistakes are pointed out to you time and again. We were required to walk into class with small mirrors to make sure our lips didn't move when we recited the 'Sheen' in the Ta'awwuz.
- Just because one is an Arab does not mean he/she recites the Qur'an correctly. In fact, technically speaking, even Sudais breaks many rules of Tajweed. Shall I remind you that just correct pronunciation of letters is not enough tajweed. It is everything from prolonging, stopping, etc. - Sa'ud Shuraim and Abdallah Al 'Awwad Johani are the two best Imams of the Haram, in terms of following the rules of Tajweed. (Although my personal best is Mohammad bin Sulayman Al Muhaysini [who, technically speaking breaks many rules of tajweed])
- The difference of opinion in the recitation of Daad has nothing to do with Barelwis or Deobandis. This is not a Deobandi/Barelwi issue, or an Arab/'Ajam issue. It's a matter of understanding.
Now, to the crux of the matter at hand.
Khulasatul Bayaan is a very famous book of the rules of Tajweed, and typically taught in the final year of studying Tajweed, and the most famous commentary of it in urdu has been authored by our ustaadh, Qari Mohammad Siddique Falahi. (Fath al Rahman Fi Sharh Khulasatil Bayan). It took him almost 10 years of research to put this together. I remember seeing him working on this during his Ramadan vacations almost 15 years ago.
I have read the entire chapter on this in the book, and without going into detail, I will mention a summary of what is mentioned.
The Makhraj of Daad is: The side of the tongue (Haafa) when touching the (roots of) molars and pre-molars (of the top) on both sides or on one side, although from the left (only) is the easiest. (Note: The Makhraj of Daad is the same everywhere. 'Arab, 'Ajam, Deobandi, Barelwi, Salafi, and whatever else is out there)
This means, that 5 or 10 teeth will be utilized in pronouncing this letter. If from one side, then 5 teeth, and if from both sides, 10 teeth. This letter is unique to the Arabic language, and it is extremely difficult to pronounce this letter correctly. Due to this, many pronounce this letter as a Daal with a full mouth, or Dhaal with a full mouth, or something else, which is all incorrect. The beauty is that each of these people claims that they are most correct.
Now, let us look at how these people pronounce this letter. Many people, when pronouncing this letter utilize the (front) tip of their tongue and touch root of the front top two teeth (incisors). All of this is incorrect. Now for a moment, pronounce the letter Daad, and stop there. Which part of the tongue did you utilize and which teeth did you utilize? Most likely you utilized the front tip of the tongue and the two front teeth, which is incorrect. This is exactly how many of our Qurraa', including Imams of the Haram pronounce their Daad. - Due to the ignorance of many people, even Imams are forced into pronouncing it incorrectly. They should try to educate the masses, as I have to.
My question to them is, you made your own Makhraj for the letter Daad. If you would have followed the real Makhraj, truthfully speaking, since you are so used to pronouncing it incorrectly, and it is so hard to pronounce from its original Makhraj, you probably can't even pronounce it, unless someone helped you with it. - In my own practice of this letter, I have to say that after practicing tajweed for an hour on a daily basis for 5-6 years, it was towards the end I think I finally got it right. This does not mean it's impossible, rather it is quite possible, but needs lots of practice.
Let me remind you in closing that:
- The Makhraj of the letter Daad is same around the world
- Most Qurraa' utilize the front tip of the tongue and front two teeth, which is incorrect.
- What needs to be used is the side of the tongue with the molars, and let me tell you, it's not easy.