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#1 [Permalink] Posted on 11th November 2013 13:22
The Lineage of the Prophet صل الله عليه و على آله و سلم


Dr 'Ali Muhamamad Sallaabee writes, "Just as he is the most complete person in terms of character, the Prophet صل الله عليه و على آله و سلم is superior to all other human beings in terms of his noble lineage. The Prophet صل الله عليه و على آله و سلم said, "Verily, Allaah chose Ismaa'eel from the children of Ibraaheem; Kinaanah from the children of Ismaa'eel; Quraish from Kinaanah, the children of Haashim from Quraish; and me from the children of Haashim." [1]

Imaam al-Bukhaari رحمه الله mentioned the lineage of the Prophet صل الله عليه و على آله و سلم: "He is Abul-Qaasim Muhammad صل الله عليه و على آله و سلم Ibn 'Abdullah Ibn 'Abdul Muttalib Ibn Haashim Ibn 'Abd Manaaf Ibn Qusai Ibn Kilaab Ibn Murrah Ibn Ka'ab Ibn Luaiy Ibn Ghaalib Ibn Faihr Ibn Maalik Ibn an-Nadar Ibn Kinaanah Ibn Khuzaimah Ibn Mudrikah Ibn Ilyaas Ibn Mudar Ibn Nizaar Ibn Ma'ad Ibn 'Adnaan." [2]

In Sharhus Sunnah, Al-Baghawi رحمه الله mentioned the lineage of the Prophet صل الله عليه و على آله و سلم up until 'Adnaan, and then said, "Beyond 'Adnaan, his lineage is not correctly memorised." [3]

'Urwah Ibn az-Zubayr رحمه الله said, "The people we have found who say that they know who is beyond 'Adnaan, are only guessing." [4]

Ibn al-Qayyim رحمه الله mentioned the lineage of the Prophet صل الله عليه و على آله و سلم until 'Adnaan and then said, "(The Prophet's صل الله عليه و على آله و سلم) lineage until here is known to be correct and is agreed upon by genealogists, so there is no disagreement whatsoever. As for what is beyond 'Adnaan, there is difference of opinion. Yet they (genealogists) unanimously agree that 'Adnaan is from the direct line of Ismaa'eel." [5]

And Ibn Sa'd رحمه الله wrote in his Tabaqaat: "We refrain (from claiming any knowledge about the lineage of the Prophet صل الله عليه و على آله و سلم) between 'Adnaan and Ismaa'eel."

Adh-Dhahabi رحمه الله said, "'Adnaan is from the children (i.e., from the direct line) of Ismaa'eel Ibn Ibraaheem, and this is unanimously agreed upon by the people (i.e., by historians and genealogists), but they differ about those grandfathers (of the Prophet) that are between 'Adnaan and Ismaa'eel." [6] [7]

Safiur Rahman Mubarakpuri writes, "With respect to the lineage of the Prophet Muhammad صل الله عليه و على آله و سلم, there are three versions: The first was authenticated by biographies and genealogists and states that Muhammad's genealogy has been traced to 'Adnaan. The second is subject to controversies and doubt, and traces his lineage beyond 'Adnaan back to Ibraaheem. The third version, with some parts definitely incorrect, traces his lineage beyond 'Adnaan back to Adam.

The first part: Muhammad صل الله عليه و على آله و سلم Ibn 'Abdullah Ibn 'Abdul Muttalib Ibn Haashim Ibn 'Abd Manaaf Ibn Qusai Ibn Kilaab Ibn Murrah Ibn Ka'ab Ibn Luaiy Ibn Ghaalib Ibn Faihr Ibn Maalik Ibn an-Nadar Ibn Kinaanah Ibn Khuzaimah Ibn Mudrikah Ibn Ilyaas Ibn Mudar Ibn Nizaar Ibn Ma'ad Ibn 'Adnaan. [7]

The second part: 'Adnaan Ibn Add Ibn Humaisi' Ibn Salaman Ibn Aws Ibn Buz Ibn Qamwal Ibn Obai Ibn 'Awwam Ibn Nashid Ibn Haza Ibn Bildas Ibn Yadlaf Ibn Tabikh Ibn Jahim Ibn Nahish Ibn Makhi Ibn Aid Ibn 'Abqar Ibn 'Ubaid Ibn ad-Da'a Ibn Hamdan Ibn Sanbir Ibn Yathrabi Ibn Yahzin Ibn Yalhan Ibn Ar'awi Ibn Aid Ibn Deshan Ibn Aisar Ibn Afnad Ibn Aiham Ibn Muksar Ibn Nahith Ibn Zarih Ibn Sami Ibn Mazzi Ibn 'Awda Ibn Aram Ibn Qaidar Ibn Ismaa'eel Ibn Ibraaheem. [8]

The third part: Beyond Ibraahem, Ibn Tarih (Azar) Ibn Nahur Ibn Saru' Ibn Ra'u Ibn Falikh Ibn Abir Ibn Shalikh Ibn Arfakhshad Ibn Sam Ibn Nooh Ibn Lamik Ibn Mutwashlack Ibn Akhnuk (who was said to be Prophet Idrees [Enoch]) Ibn Yarid Ibn Mahla'il Ibn Qainan Ibn Anusha Ibn Sheeth Ibn Adam." [9] [10]

Dr 'Ali Muhamamad Sallaabee continues, "Men with noble lineages have throughout history been accorded with special honour. Generally speaking, a person with noble lineage is not denied the right to lead and to have authority, but people question the right of a person of low lineage to be a leader - a king, a president, an emperor, etc. Since the Prophet صل الله عليه و على آله و سلم was being prepared for Prophethood, Allaah سبحانه و تعالى blessed him with a noble lineage, thus making it easier for people to accept and follow him.

The Prophet صل الله عليه و على آله و سلم indeed possesses a most wonderful lineage. He is from the direct line of both Ismaa'eel عليه الصلاة و السلام and Ibraaheem عليه الصلاة و السلام. Furthermore, he is the answer to the supplication of Ibraaheem; he said about himself, "I am the supplication of my father Ibraaheem (i.e., the answer to his supplication), and the glad tidings of my brother 'Eesa (Jesus)." [11]

It is most often the case that people who are blessed with noble lineages aspire for higher goals and aims, and turn away from base desires; and of course, this was especially true of the Prophets and Messengers (peace be upon them all)." [12]

Notes:

[1] Saheeh Muslim

[2] Saheeh al-Bukhari

[3] Sharhus Sunnah, 13/193

[4] Ibn Sa'd, 1/58

[5] Zaad al-Ma'ad, 1/71

[6] As-Seerah an-Nabawiyya

[7] The Noble Life of the Prophet صل الله عليه و على آله و سلم, vol. 1, pp. 77-78

[8] Ibn Hisham, 1/1-2; Talqeeh Fuhoom Ahlul-Athar, pp. 5-6; Rahmatul lil-'Alameen, 2/11-14, 52

[9] Rahmatul lil-'Alameen, 2/14-17

[10] Ibn Hisham, 1/2-4; Rahmatul lil-'Alameen, 2/18; Khulusat as-Siyar, p. 6

[11] ar-Raheequl Makhtoom (The Sealed Nectar), p. 49

[12] al-Hakim, 2/600

[13] The Noble Life of the Prophet صل الله عليه و على آله و سلم, vol. 1, p. 79


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#2 [Permalink] Posted on 11th November 2013 20:39
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#3 [Permalink] Posted on 12th November 2013 11:39
Untainted Family Lineage


Allaah سبحانه و تعالى says,

"Verily a messenger has come to you from the best amongst yourselves..."

Maulana Idris Kandehlawi رحمه الله writes,

"Hadrat Anas رضي الله عنه reports that the Messenger of Allaah صل الله عليه و على آله و سلم recited the verse "Laqad jaa akum rasoolun min anfasikum..." (with a fat-ha on the word Anfas). In other words, verily a prophet of Allaah سبحانه و تعالى has come to you from amongst your most superior, noble and virtuous families. After the recitation of the this verse, the Messenger of Allaah صل الله عليه و على آله و سلم said: 'In terms of family lineage, I am the most noble and superior of you. From the time of Adam عليه السلام right up to me, there was no adultery. All of us (our ancestors) were born in wedlock." [1]

Hadrat Ibn 'Abbaas رضي الله عنهما and Zuhri رحمه الله also recited the aforementioned verse as "Min Anfasikum" with a fat-ha and they would explain it as, 'The most most virtuous and noble.' We have also indicated towards this meaning in our translation of the verse. All the forebears of the Messenger of Allaah صل الله عليه و على آله و سلم right from Hadrat Adam عليه السلام right up to his parents, each and every one of them was a chaste person. None of them were contaminated with the sin of adultery. [2]

The family lineage of the sincere servants whom Allaah سبحانه و تعالى has preferred for His prophethood will always be pure and untarnished. Allaah سبحانه و تعالى always ensures their transmission from uncontaminated loins to chaste wombs. Before selecting a person for a preferred task, Allaah سبحانه و تعالى will most definitely ensure that his family lineage is also preferred, untainted and cultured. These are the Mustafeenul Akhyaar (the selected elite). The degree of intimacy the saintly and favoured servants have with something, correspondingly, the degree of saintliness and righteousness is instilled within them.

When the hypocrites falsely accused Ummul Mu'mineen Hadrat 'Aa'ishah رضي الله عنها of infidelity, Allaah سبحانه و تعالى revealed ten verses of Soorah Noor clearing her name of any wrongdoing. He declared the innocence of Siddeeqah (truthful) رضي الله عنها the daughter of as-Siddeeq (the truthful) رضي الله عنه. One of these verses is,

"And why did you not, when you heard it, say: "It is not right for us to speak of this. Glory be to You (O Allaah) this is a great lie." (Soorah Noor, 24:16)

In other words, O Muslims! The moment you hear of this slander, you should have instantly submitted: "Subhaanallaah! This is a mighty serious allegation. Allaah forbid! How can a Prophet's wife be guilty of infidelity? A Prophet's wife is always pure and chaste."

Ibn Munzir رحمه الله narrates on the authority of Hadrat Ibn 'Abbaas رضي الله عنهما that a Prophet's wife has never indulged in an adulterous liaison with anyone.

Ibn Juraij رحمه الله says that the perpetration of infidelity by the wife of a prophet does not behove the illustrious status of Prophethood.

Ibn 'Asaakir رحمه الله narrates on the authority of Ashras Khuraasaanee رضي الله عنه that the Messenger of Allaah صل الله عليه و على آله و سلم said, 'None of the spouses of the prophets ever indulged in an adulterous relationship.' [3]

In his commentary, Haafidh Ibn Katheer رحمه الله narrates the aforementioned hadeeth on the authority of Hadrat Ibn 'Abbaas رضي الله عنهما. Ibn Katheer thereafter adds that a similar narration is reported by 'Ikramah رحمه الله, Sa'eed Ibn Jubair رحمه الله and Dahhaak. [4]

When the infidelity of the spouses of the prophets is in contradiction to the eminent status of prophethood, the infidelity of their mothers and grandmothers will naturally be more in contradiction of this status of prophethood. This is so because the maternal relationship is stronger than a matrimonial relationship. It is preposterous to presume that the creation, conception and birth of a Prophet was spawned by sin and infidelity. Allaah forbid! It is downright outrageous to imagine that the chosen emissary of Allaah سبحانه و تعالى would be the descendent of an illegitimate union.

From Hadrat Adam عليه السلام right up to the Messenger of Allaah صل الله عليه و على آله و سلم, not even the most prejudiced critic ever picked at any of the prophets' untainted ancestral lines. Only the Jews - may the curse of Allaah descend upon them in this world and the next - maliciously slandered the chaste mother of Hadrat 'Eesa (Jesus عليه السلام), Hadrat Maryam عليها السلام. Allaah سبحانه و تعالى unequivocally explains the innocence of Hadrat Maryam عليها السلام and the blessed birth of Hadrat 'Eesa عليه السلام in the Holy Qur'aan and He also cursed the Jews repeatedly in the Qur'aan. This is a clear indication that this unreservedly possessive being (Allaah سبحانه و تعالى) would never, even for a moment, tolerate even a wicked person raising doubts about the unblemished lineage of any of His delegated messengers.

When the Roman emperor asked Hadrat Abu Sufyan رضي الله عنه about the family lineage of the Messenger of Allaah صل الله عليه و على آله و سلم in the following words: 'What is his family like amongst you?'

according to the narration in Saheeh al-Bukhaari, Hadrat Abu Sufyan رضي الله عنه replied, 'He is amongst us a man of prominent lineage.'

Haafidh 'Asqalaani رحمه الله says that the narration of Bazzaar is worded thus: '(Abu Sufyan رضي الله عنه replied) He is of such a noble lineage that nobody else can surpass him.'

The emperor remarked, 'This is also a symbol (of his prophethood).' (Fathul Bari [5], Kitaabut-Tafseer [6])

In other words, the nobility of his family lineage is also a symbol of his prophethood.

According to the narrations of Saheeh al-Bukhaari, when the Roman emperor heard the response of Hadrat Abu Sufyan رضي الله عنه, he remarked: 'Similarly, all prophets are sent forth from the most distinguished families of their nations.' [7]

The lineage of our Prophet Muhammad صل الله عليه و على آله و سلم is the most noble and dignified lineage of all the diverse family lineages of the world. This gilded lineage is recorded as follows:

Muhammad صل الله عليه و على آله و سلم Ibn 'Abdullaah Ibn 'Abdul Muttalib Ibn Haashim Ibn 'Abdu Manaaf Ibn Qusay Ibn Kilaab Ibn Murrah Ibn Ka'b Ibn Luwayy Ibn Ghaalib Ibn Fihr Ibn Maalik Ibn an-Nadr Ibn Kinaanah Ibn Khuzaimah Ibn Mudrikah Ibn Ilyaas Ibn Mudar Ibn Nazaar Ibn Ma'ad Ibn 'Adnaan. [8]

Haafidh 'Asqalaani رحمه الله says that Imaam Bukhaari رحمه الله records this noble lineage in his Jaami' Saheeh up to 'Adnaan only. However, in his Taareekh, he records the lineage right up to Hadrat Ibraaheem. This is recorded as follows:

'Adnaan ibn Udaw Ibn al-Muqawwam ibn Taarih ibn Yashjab ibn Ya'rab Ibn Thaabit Ibn Ismaa'eel ibn Ibraaheem. [9]

The accuracy of the lineage going up to 'Adnaan is acknowledged by all genealogists. None of them disagree on this issue. In fact, the accuracy of 'Adnaan being a descendent of Hadrat Ismaa'eelعليه السلام is also recognised by all genealogists. [10]

However, the differ on the number of ancestors there were between 'Adnaan and Hadrat Ismaa'eel عليه السلام. Some genealogists are of the opinion that there were thirty whilst others maintain that there were at least forty successive generations between the two. And Allaah سبحانه و تعالى knows best.

Hadrat 'Abdullaah Ibn 'Abbaas رضي الله عنهما narrates that whenever the Messenger of Allaah صل الله عليه و على آله و سلم broached the subject of his noble ancestry, he would not mention any of his forbears beyond 'Adnaan. He would stop at 'Adnaan and then remark: 'The genealogists have erred.' [11]

In other words, they are not entirely acquainted with all his successive ancestors. Their statements are not authenticated.

Hadrta 'Abdullaah Ibn Mas'ood رضي الله عنه would recite this verse:

"And the peoples of 'Aad and Thamood and those after them, nobody except Allaah has knowledge about them." (Soorah Ibraaheem, 14:9)

He would thereafter declare: 'The genealogists have erred.'

In other words, the genealogists claim that they are fully acquainted with all the bloodlines but this is a false claim. [12]

'Allaamah Suhaili رحمه الله says that Imaam Maalik رحمه الله was once asked about a person who traces his family tree all the way to Hadrat Adam عليه السلام. Imaam Maalik رحمه الله expressed his aversion to this undertaking. When the questioner asked about tracing his bloodline to Hadrat Ismaa'eel عليه السلام, Imaam Maalik رحمه الله again expressed his aversion to this by saying: 'Who informed him of this?'" [13] [14]

Notes:

[1] Zarqaani Sharh Mawaahib Laduniyyah, vol. 1, p. 67

[2] This is the gist of a hadeeth narrated by at-Tabaraani on the authority of Hadrat 'Ali رضي الله عنه. Haafidh Haythami رحمه الله says that all the narrators of this hadeeth are reliable except one narrator who is somewhat denounced as a reliable narrator. However, Haakim has declared the said narrator as reliable (Zarqaani, vol. 1, p. 67)

[3] Durre Manthoor, vol. 6, p. 145

[4] Tafseer Ibn Katheer, vol. 8, p. 419

[5] Fathul Bari, vol. 8, p. 193, Egyptian edition, 1301 A.H.

[6] A reference is made to Kitaabut-Tafseer because Haafidh 'Asqalaani رحمه الله mentions this narration of Bazzaar only on this occasion and he makes no mention of it in Badlul-Wahi, Kitaabul Jihaad, Maghaazi, etc.

[7] Saheeh Bukhaari

[8] Saheeh Bukhaari

[9] Fathul Baari, vol. 7, p. 125

[10] Zaadul Ma'aad, vol. 1, p. 15

[11] At-Tabaqaat al-Kubra li Ibn Sa'd, vol. 1, p. 28

[12] Tabaqaat Ibn Sa'd, vol. 1, p. 28

[13] Rawdul Anf, vol. 1, p. 11, Egyptian print, 1332 A.H.

[14] Maulana Idris Kandehlawi رحمه الله: Seeratul Mustafa صل الله عليه و على آله و سلم, vol. 1, pp. 25-30
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#4 [Permalink] Posted on 14th July 2014 18:34
Imam Ibn al-Qayyim رحمه الله said,

"This name [Muhammad] is the most famous of the Prophet's names صل الله عليه و على آله و سلم. It originates from the word hamd [praise], which entails lauding and loving the beloved, and exalting and revering him. This is the reality of praise.

The name Muhammad has the morphological patern of mufa'al, like the words mu'dhdham [revered], muhabbab [beloved], muwaddad [object of affection], mubajjal [honoured], and the like. That is because this morphological pattern is used to denote abundance [taktheer]; so if an active participle is derived from this form, it means one who does a specific action time and time again, such as a mu'allim [teacher], mufahhim [tutor], mubayyin [explainer], mukhallis [deliverer], mufarrih [merry maker], etc.

On the other hand, if a passive participle is derived from this form it means one who is a frequent object of that action time and time again, or, in this case, one who deserves to be praised time and time again. It is said, 'He was praised abundantly, hence he is oft-praised [muhammad],' just as it is said, 'He was taught frequently, hence he is well taught [mu'allam].'

In connection to the Prophet صل الله عليه و على آله و سلم, the name Muhammad is both a quality and a proper noun. (Although with regards to many people named Muhammad it is only a proper noun.)"

[Quoted in Sa'aadat ad-Daarayn fis-Salaat 'alaa Sayyid al-Kawnayn, Shaykh Yusuf an-Nabahani رحمه الله]
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#5 [Permalink] Posted on 29th July 2014 14:10


"And We have not sent you, [O Muhammad صل الله عليه و على آله و سل...], except as a mercy to the worlds." [Soorah al-Anbiyaa', 21:107]

Shaykh Yusuf an-Nabahani رح...ه الله said,

"The most correct view regarding this verse is that it is taken upon its general meaning. By that estimation it may be said to contain two angles.

Regarding the first angle, it may be said that "the worlds" (al-'Aalameen) in general received benefit through his messengership.

As for his followers, they obtained through him nobility in this life and the next.

As for his enemies and those who fought against him, their swift killing and deaths were better for them than remaining alive, for their lives [if lengthened] would have led to an increase in the intensity of torment meted out to them in the Hereafter. It was decreed that their lot be wretchedness, so their swift death was better for them than living a long life in a state of disbelief.

As for the disbelievers with whom the Prophet صل الله عليه و على آله و سل... had a covenant of protection [al-mu'aahidoon], they lived in this world under his shade, covenant, and protection, and due to their covenant they were lesser in evil than those who waged war against the Prophet.

As for the hypocrites, it was such that their blood, wealth, and families were respected and made sacrosanct, and because they openly displayed faith in the Prophet, they enjoyed the legal rulings of Muslims, such as inheritance and the like.

As for the other nations of the earth, Allaah سبحانه و تعالى lifted with the Prophet's صل الله عليه و على آله و سل... message the general punishment that had afflicted them, so the entire world attained benefit from the Prophet's صل الله عليه و على آله و سل... message.

Regarding the second angle, it is said that the Prophet صل الله عليه و على آله و سل... was a mercy to all, but the believers accepted this mercy and benefited from it in this life and the next, and the disbelievers rejected it. So while he was still a mercy to them, the disbelievers did not accept it - much like when it is said that a particular medicine is useful for a particular ailment but the patient fails to take it, yet it is still useful for the sickness as such.

[Sa'aadat ad-Daarayn fis-Salaat 'alaa Sayyid al-Kawnayn صل الله عليه و على آله و سل...]
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#6 [Permalink] Posted on 30th July 2014 14:25
"The difference between the name Aḥmad and Muḥammad can be expressed in two different ways:

In the first way, the name Muḥammad means the one who is praised over and over again, and it indicates an abundance of those who praise him, which in turn necessitates that he possesses praiseworthy traits that merit such praise. On the other hand, Aḥmad is a superlative noun that comes from the word ح...د (ḥamd - praise), and it indicates that the praise he merits is far superior to the praise merited by others. The name Muḥammad, therefore, indicates a quantitative increase in his praises, and the name Aḥmad indicates a qualitative increase in his praises - hence the Prophet صل الله عليه و على آله و سل... is praised more often and with better praise than all others who are praised.

In the second way, Muḥammad is the one who is praised repeatedly (as we mentioned above) and Aḥmad is the one who praises of his Lord are superior to the praises of others. Accordingly, the first name, Muḥammad, indicates the one who is praised, and the second name, Aḥmad, indicates that he is the best of those who praise his Lord.

This [latter] view conforms to grammatical principles. According to the Basran grammatical school, superlative nouns [Tafḍeel] and nouns of astonishment [ta'ajjub] are only derived from subject-doer nouns [faa'il] and not subject-nouns [maf'ool]; however, others have contended with this position of theirs and said that rather, it is permitted to derive nouns of astonishment and superlative nouns from subject-doer nouns as well as object nouns. In any case, the point here is simply to mention that the Prophet صل الله عليه و على آله و سل... was named Muḥammad and Aḥmad because he praises more than others and is superior to others who are praised. The preferred position is that both names are object-nouns, as that is more eloquent in extolment of him and more complete in meaning. Had the intended meaning been that of a subject-doer noun he would be al-Ḥammaad [the one who is frequent in praise] just as he was named Muḥammad [the one who is oft-praised], for indeed, he praised his Lord more than any of creation. And so if his name was a subject-doer noun it would have been more fitting to name him Ḥammaad, just as his Umma is named al-Ḥammaadoon [those given to abundant praise].

Moreover, his two names are but derived from his praiseworthy characteristics and traits on account of which he merited the names Muḥammad and Aḥmad. He is, therefore, the one who is praised by the inhabitants of the world and the Hereafter, and praised by those of celestial and terrestrial worlds. And on account of his multitude of praiseworthy features that escape the calculations of those who enumerate, he was given two names of praise that necessitate his superiority in rank and qualities."

[Shaykh Yusuf an-Nabahani رح...ه الله: Sa'aadat ad-Daarayn fis-Salaat 'alaa Sayyid al-Kawnayn]
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#7 [Permalink] Posted on 31st July 2014 11:37
al-'Allaama Qaa'ee 'Iyaa' رح...ه الله said,

"Allaah سبحانه و تعالى prevented anyone from being called by these two names [Muḥammad and Aḥmad] before his time صل الله عليه و على آله و سل..., and no one had laid claim to this name before him صل الله عليه و على آله و سل..., lest those who are weak of heart fall pray to doubts and confusion.

The same may be said with respect to the name Muḥammad. None of the Arabs or anyone else was called that until it became known shortly before his birth صل الله عليه و على آله و سل... that a prophet would be sent whose name shall be Muḥammad, whereupon a few Arabs named their sons Muḥammad in hopes that one of them would be him, but,



"Allah knows best with whom to place His Message." [Sooratul An'aam, 6:124]

[Quoted in Sa'aadat ad-Daarayn fis-Salaat 'alaa Sayyid al-Kawnayn]
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#8 [Permalink] Posted on 6th October 2017 07:47
Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) is the best role model for all humankind. Among his outstanding virtues and characteristics, he was an extraordinary husband, a perfect father, and a unique grandfather. He was also a great statesman, judge, and spiritual leader. His most distinctive quality, however, was the fact that he was a blessing to all in both word and deed.He infused justice, love, and dignity in those around him. He spread the power of brotherhood to the extent that it became exceptional in human history. Affirming that these grand virtues were bestowed on him by Allah the Almighty and that He prepared His loyal messenger to call for the true religion, is part of one’s belief.
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