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Difference between female circumcision and FGM

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#1 [Permalink] Posted on 24th April 2017 00:02
asaalamu alaikum

the following article by Imam Afroz Ali explains the differences between Female gential mutilation (haram) and female circumcision . it was originally on seekershub but its no longer there.

www.sophisticatedpurity.blogspot.com/2012/04/mutilating-f...

As hanafis, and in the west most of us have no idea what these terms refer to other than non Musims saying it is a barbaric practice associated with Islam. On the other extreme we have Knowlegable Muslims completely denying that female circumcision has anything to do with Islam at all and it is merely cultural. This is quite confusing because a Google search will show female circumcison in its correct form is obligatory in the shafi madhab, and sunnah or preferable or at least permissible in the other madhabs. That being said , I have no idea if anyone does it correctly, so I am in no way advocating it, just explaining the different terms and their basis in Islamic tradition.
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#2 [Permalink] Posted on 24th April 2017 09:44
This is something I was not aware of from the other schools on female circumcision.

www.muftisays.com/forums/81-debates--refutations/11474-sp...

Muadh Khan wrote:
ar.islamway.net/fatwa/15505/%D9%85%D8%A7-%D8%AD%D9%83%D9%...



وقد اختلف أئمة المذاهب وفقهاؤها في حكم الختان: قال ابن القيم (هامش شرح السنة للبغوى ج - 2 ص 110 في باب الختان ) في كتابه (تحفة المودود): اختلف الفقهاء في ذلك.
فقال الشعبي وربيعة والأوزاعي ويحيى بن سعيد الأنصاري ومالك والشافعي وأحمد هو واجب، وشدد فيه مالك حتى قال: من لم يختتن لم تجز إمامته ولم تقبل شهادته، ونقل كثير من الفقهاء عن مالك، أنه سنة، حتى قال القاضي عياض: الاختتان عند مالك وعامة العلماء سنة، ولكن السنة عندهم يأثم تاركها، فهم يطلقونها على مرتبة بين الفرض والندب، وقال الحسن البصرى وأبو حنيفة لا يجب بل هو سنة.

وفى فقه الإمام أبى حنيفة (الاختيار شرح المختار للموصلي ج - 2 ص 121 في كتاب الكراهية) إن الختان للرجال سنة، وهو من الفطرة، وللنساء مكرمة، فلو اجتمع أهل مصر (بلد) على ترك الختان قاتلهم الإمام، لأنه من شعائر الإسلام وخصائصه.

والمشهور في فقه الإمام مالك في حكم الختان للرجال والنساء كحكمه في فقه الإمام أبى حنيفة.

answering-islam.org/Sharia/fem_circumcision.html

Circumcision is obligatory (O: for both men and women. For men it consists of removing the prepuce from the penis, and for women, removing the prepuce (Ar. Bazr) of the clitoris (n: not the clitoris itself, as some mistakenly assert). (A: Hanbalis hold that circumcision of women is not obligatory but sunna, while Hanafis consider it a mere courtesy to the husband.)"

Hanafi Madhab:
Imam Abu Haneefa (RA): Permissable OR nobility for women or courtesy to Husband, but not Sunnah or Mustahab
Madhab: Permissable, but not Sunnah or Mustahab
Maiki Madhab:
Imam Malik (RA): same as Imam Abu Haneefa (RA)
Madhab: same as Hanafi Madhab
Shaf'ae Madhab: Obligatory
Hanbali Madhab: Sunnah
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#3 [Permalink] Posted on 24th April 2017 14:22
I cannot access the link above. Can I be added to that group?
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#4 [Permalink] Posted on 24th April 2017 14:29
Concerned wrote:
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You have been added.
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#5 [Permalink] Posted on 24th April 2017 17:21
Jazak Allahu khair but I still see this msg when I click on the link:

You currently do not have sufficient access to read this forum. You may need to require access to the specified usergroup. You can do this by clicking Usergroups in the main forum menu.

In user groups it says I am a member though.
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#6 [Permalink] Posted on 24th April 2017 17:43
Admin will look into it inshaAllah. In the mean time I will reset your permissions. Let me know if it works.
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#7 [Permalink] Posted on 25th April 2017 16:26
Concerned wrote:
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Salam, can you check now?
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#8 [Permalink] Posted on 25th April 2017 17:04
Walikum Salam, yes it is working , jazakalahu khair
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#9 [Permalink] Posted on 30th April 2017 23:23
Salam alaikum
Brothers and sisters.

Disbelievers used circumcision to promote their "mutilation of Islam" agenda, but they just expose themselves.

I have collected some information on this topic and I post this here for muslims' benefit إن شاء الله

WHO (World Health Organization) Types of Female Genital Cutting:

Female genital cutting is “term used to refer to any practice which includes the removal or the alteration of the female genitalia.”:

Type I: This is the mildest form of FGC, which includes removing or splitting the prepuce (foreskin or ‘hood’) which covers the clitoris of females, thus exposing the glans. This may be couple with partial or total excision of the clitoris. This is known as clitoridotomy (slang: hoodectomy). According to the United Nations Population Fund, this form is comparable to male circumcision.[7] This is sometimes also called “sunna circumcision” due to the fact that it is this type which is performed commonly by those Muslims who believe it to be legislated in Islam.

Type Ia, removal of the clitoral hood or prepuce only; WHO refers to this type as "female circumcision".
s20.postimg . org/9dkass4fx/Sunnah . png
Type Ib, removal of the clitoris with the prepuce.


Type II: In this type, known as clitoridectomy, the clitoris and labia minora is partially or totally removed.

Type III: This is one of the most extreme forms of FGC, involving the total excision of the clitoris, both the labia minora and majora, and the joining of the two sides of the vulva across the vagina, sewn with thread or secured with other items, until it heals joining together. Only a small, pencil-size hole is left to allow passage of menstrual blood and urine. This is known as infibulation or Pharaonic Circumcision, in reference to its origins.
s20.postimg . org/jdf78ofp9/Types . png
Type IV: This type is inclusive of all other forms of genital cutting, such as: pricking, piercing or incision of the clitoris and/or labia; stretching of the clitoris and/or labia; cauterization by burning of the clitoris and surrounding tissue; introcision, scraping (angurya cuts) or cutting (gishri cuts) of the vagina or surrounding tissue; and introduction of corrosive substances or herbs into the vagina.



It is key to note, however, that it is only this first type which some of the scholars regarded as commendable, which is the clipping of the prepuce until the glans becomes visible, or less. This procedure is harmless and has no detrimental effects upon women, and is similar to the circumcision of men, as mentioned previously, thus calling it "mutilation" is just a manifestation of ignorance.


It's of note that wiki and similar secular and Christian sites try to force the word "mutilation" for both male and female circumcision and that exposes their anti-Islamic agenda.

Medically speaking;

Complications are immediate and late, physical and psychosexual, minor and serious, even fatal. The causes are the type of operation and the operator.

An extensive operation common to Sudan consists of removal of the whole clitoris, the whole of the labia minora, and part of the labia majora. Complications common with pharaonic or Sudanese circumcision (My note: Not type Ia) include painful scarkeloid formation, labial adhesions, cysts of the clitoris, vulval disfigurement, vaginal calculi, tight circumcision, infertility, and urinary complications. Psychosexual complications include a feeling of reduced feminity; diminished desire for coitus; diminished coital frequency; dyspareunia, apareunia or vaginismus; lack of orgasm; anal intercourse; depression and psychotic states; and, social problems. With infibulation come obstetric complications. Vaginal examination during labor may be difficult; catheterization of bladder is difficult; second stage of labor is delayed; tearing or splitting of the circumcison scar is unavoidable; injury of the vagina, cervix, and fetal scalp; and, soft-tissue obstruction by the vulval skin diaphragm contributes to the production of a vesicovaginal fistula.
ncbi.nlm.nih . gov/pubmed/12336839

Any medical gynecologist can tell you the problem lies only in types other than Type Ia. However, due to lack of skillful personnels, sometimes the practice is done with excess, causing great harm to the girls who undergo the procedure.That's why there is a tendency to prohibit this habit.

Islamically

This practice was accepted by some of the classical schools of law and is practiced today by some Muslims.

The basis in Islamic law is that it is not permissible to cause bodily harm and any such practice of female circumcision proven to be harmful would be unlawful.

Ubaida ibn As-Samit reported: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said:

لاَ ضَرَرَ وَلاَ ضِرَارَ

Do not cause harm or return harm.​

Source: Sunan ibn Majah 2340, Grade: Hasan

There are a few weak traditions used to sanction the practice, but upon scrutiny we find that none of them are authentic.

Usama ibn Umair reported: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said:

الْخِتَانُ سُنَّةٌ لِلرِّجَالِ مَكْرُمَةٌ لِلنِّسَاءِ

Circumcision is a sunnah for men and honorable for women.​

Source: Musnad Ahmad 20195, Grade: Da’eef (weak)

Umm Atiyyah reported: A woman used to perform circumcision in Medina and the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, said:

لَا تُنْهِكِي فَإِنَّ ذَلِكَ أَحْظَى لِلْمَرْأَةِ وَأَحَبُّ إِلَى الْبَعْلِ

Do not cut severely, as it is better for the woman and more desirable for the husband.​

Source: Sunan Abu Dawud 5271, Grade: Da’eef (weak)

Famous scholars of Islam based their fiqh on quran and "authentic" hadith.

Imam Abu Hanifah: “If a hadith is found to be authentic, then it is my madhab.”
’When I say something contradicting the Book of Allah the Exalted or what is narrated from the Messenger [​IMG], then ignore my saying.’’

Imam Malik: “Everyone after the Prophet will have their statements accepted or rejected except the Prophet.”

Imam Shafi: “Every hadith of the Prophet is my position even if you did not hear it from me.”

Imam Ahmad: “If one rejects a hadith of the Messenger of Allah, they will be at the brink of destruction.”

However, if a scholar thinks of an evidence as true, and later the evidence was proved to be Daiif, then that's no longer his position as they explicitly stressed.

And Allah knows best.
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#10 [Permalink] Posted on 6th May 2017 13:57

I have taken the time to read what is in this thread and I don't believe that anything was missed in this article:

Can you elaborate upon the Islamic viewpoint on female circumcision and FGM? How should Muslims react to the issue from a Child safeguarding perspective?

In a nutshell, large number of Muslims in United Kingdom follow the Hanafi School of (Islamic) jurisprudence. Female circumcision is neither Sunnah nor has any religious significance and it is also illegal. Therefore it is impermissible in Britain. Since this is a child safeguarding issue, in a School/Maktab setting teaching and administrative staff need to be alert to the possibility of a girl being at risk of FGM and report it promptly and appropriately as per their child safeguarding policies.

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