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Muharram, (10th, Ashura on Saturday) and Fasting

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#1 [Permalink] Posted on 22nd October 2015 10:49

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Asslamo Allaikum Wa Rahmatullahi Wa Barakatuh,
 

Wifaqul Ulama explains the virtues of Muharram, fasting in it and specifically fasting on Ashura (10th of Muharram, Saturday) combining it with 9th (Friday) or 11th (Sunday). There are some recommendations of fasting on other days in Muharram being circulated on social media, our article explains the background and virtues of these recommendations.



http://wifaqululama.co.uk/index.php/moonsighting/announcesight/5-muharram-1437


 

وفاق العلماء برطانیہ کی طرف سے محرم الحرام کے فضائل اور عاشورہ اور دیگر روزوں کے بارے میں ایک تفصیلی تحریر۔ سوشل میڈیا پر محرم کے دیگر دنوں میں روزوں کے بارے میں بھی معلومات موجود ہیں۔
 
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وفاق العلماء

جزاك اللهُ خيرًا

 
Date: 22nd of October 2015
Time: 10:46 (London)
Wifaqul Ulama Admin: +447956589613

 

 

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#2 [Permalink] Posted on 22nd October 2015 11:42

Imams Abu Dawud and Tirmidhi have reported from Sayyidatuna Samma (radiyallahu’anha) that Rasulullah (sallallahu’alaihi wasallam) said: “Don’t fast on Saturdays unless it’s an obligatory fast” i.e, like Ramadhan.

(Abu Dawud, Hadith:2413, and others)

This hadith has been quoted by some contemporaries to discourage people from fasting on the day of Ashura (10th Muharram) if it falls on a Saturday.

This is a gross misinterpretation which stems from a lack of faqahah (true understanding of the nature of Shari’ah)

Hereunder is a brief explanation of the issue as understood by the senior Scholars of the ummah.

The Scholars have either interpreted the above hadith differently, classified it to be abrogated or even dismissed it as weak. The details are as follows:

Correct interpretation

  1. Imams Bukhari and Muslim have reported via Sayyiduna Abu Hurairah (radiyallahu’anhu) that Rasulullah (sallallahu’alaihi wasallam) said: “None of you should fast on a Friday, unless he fasts with it one day before or after.” (Sahih Bukhari, Hadith:1985 & Sahih Muslim, 2678)

This hadith clearly states that there is no harm if one observes a fast on a Friday and Saturday together. Hence the hadith that prohibits fasting on Saturdays will be interpreted to mean: fasting on a Saturday only.

Note: Those who have the habit of dismissing everything that doesn’t suite them as a “weak hadith”, should take note that this hadith is in Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim. The next hadith is also classified sahih:

;

2. Sayyidatuna Ummu Salamah (radiyallahu ‘anha) – the honourable wife of Rasulullah (sallallahu’alaihi wasallam)- reports that: “Rasulullah sallallalhu’alaihi wasallam would fast on Saturdays and Sundays more than any other days”

(Musnad Ahmad, hadith: and classified sahih (authentic) by Imam Ibn Hibban; see Sahih Ibn Hibban, hadith:)

;

3. Hafidh Ibn Rajab Al-Hambali (rahimahullah) says: “In light of this, we will interpret the narration that prohibits fasting on Saturdays to mean fasting on aSaturday alone.” (Lataaiful Ma’arif, pg.112)

;

4. In fact, Imam Baihaqi (rahimahullah) quoted the hadith of prohibition in a chapter named: ‘Chapter that discusses the narrations that prohibit fasting on a Saturday alone’

In other words, Imam Baihaqi has also concurred with the conclusion that the hadith doesn’t stop one from fasting on a Saturday as long as one fasts a day before or after as well. For this reason Baihaqi (rahimahullah) ends the chapter with the hadith of Umm Salamah (radiyallahu’anha) –cited above- that Rasulullah (sallallahu’alaihi wasallam) would often fast on Saturdays and Sundays. (Sunanul Kubra, vol.4 pg.302-303)

;

Note: There are many Scholars who have adopted the above interpretation. I have not quoted them to avoid monotony.

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5. Imam Tahawi (rahimahullah) writes: “It’s possible that the prohibition applies to those who do so solely to replicate the jews. If someone fasts on Saturday without the intention of emulating of the jews, then it will not be makruh(disliked)” (Sharh Ma’anil Aathaar, vol.2 pg.81)

;

Those who claimed abrogation

 

6. Imam Abu Dawud (rahimahullah) after citing this narration in his sunan writes:

“This narration is abrogated by the hadith reported by Sayyidatuna Juwairiyah (radiyallahu ‘anha) wherein she reports that Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) visited her on a Friday and discovered she was fasting. He enquired: “did you fast yesterday?” She replied: “no” he asked further: “do you intend to fast tomorrow (Saturday)? She said: “no”

Rasulullah (sallallahu’alaihi wasallam) said: “Then don’t fast today”

(Sahih Bukhari, 1986, Sunan Abi Dawud, 2414)

;

By quoting this Imam Abu Dawud (rahimahullah) is emphasising that the Nabi of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) saw nothing wrong with fasting on a Saturday.[1]

 

7. Like Imam Abu Dawud has done, Imam Baihaqi (rahimahullah) also quoted the hadith of Sayyidatuna Juwairiyyah (rahiyallahu’anha) in answer to the hadith of prohibition. (Sunanul Kubra, vol.4 pg.303)

;

8. Ibn Taymiyyah (rahimahullah) says: This hadith is either shazh (unacceptable due to contradiction) or Mansukh; abrogated

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Those who deemed it as a weak narration

 

9. Imam Abu Dawud (rahimahullah) quotes Imam Malik (rahimahullah) to have said: “This is a mistake” Sunan Abi Dawud, 2416)

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10. He also quotes that whenever the narration that prohibits fasting on Saturdays was mentioned before Imam Zuhri (rahimahullah) he would say that it’s unreliable. (Sunan Abi Dawud, 2415. See Shaykh Muhammad ‘Awwamah’s footnotes explaining Zuhri’s statement.)

;

Imam Tahawi (rahimahullah) has also said that Imam Zuhri discredited this hadith. (Sharh Ma’anil Aathaar, vol.2 pg.81)

;

11. Imam Nasaai (rahimahullah) after reporting this hadith comments: “This hadith is very contradictory” (Talkheesul Habeer, vol.2 pg.470)

 

12. Imam Tahawi (rahimahullah) says: “The ahadith that permit fasting on a Saturday are more popular and acceptable to the ‘Ulama in comparision to this (hadith of prohibition) which is shazh (unacceptable due to contradiction) (Sharhul Ma’ani, vol2 pg.80)

;

13Ibn Taymiyyah (rahimahullah) says: This hadith is either shazh (unacceptable due to contradiction) or Mansukh; abrogated”

;

14. Hafidh Ibn Hajar (rahimahullah) says: “Such contradiction in a narration like this one is sufficient to weaken it.” (Talkheesul Habeer, vol.2 pg.470)

Note: It’s truly amazing how some people (when it suites them) choose to follow a hadith as debatable as this one and ignore other ahadith that are authentic (like the hadith of Bukhari/Muslim and the other from Sahih Ibn Hibban)

15. Imam Tahawi (rahimahullah) writes in his unique hadith collection entitled: Sharh ma’ani Aathaar” “Indeed Rasulullah (sallallahu’alaihi wasallam) permitted and encouraged fasting on Ashura, and he never said: “Don’t fast (Ashura) if it falls on a Saturday”, Tahawi writes further:

“That’s a proof to show that the (Ashura) fast can be observed on any day” (Vol.2 pg.80)

;

Summary

In light of the above, one will be allowed to fast on Ashura if it falls on a Saturday as long as it’s not done in emulation of the jews and/or one adds a day before or after it. This is supported by authentic ahadith.

As for the hadith that apparently prohibits fasting on a Saturday other than for the obligatory fast; together with it being classified as either abrogated or weak by the Senior Scholars of the Ummah, it also has a different interpretation.

In fact, some of the earlier scholars actually refused to quote this narration to anyone, for fear of creating confusion (like is the sad case today)

 


[1] See an interesting discussion on the details of this abrogation by Hafidh Ibn Hajar (rahimahullah) in Talkheesul Habeer, vol.2 pg.480.

www.al-miftah.com/2012/12/15/fasting-on-ashura-saturday/&...;

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#3 [Permalink] Posted on 22nd October 2015 12:36
It is makrooh to single out Saturday for fasting, because of the report narrated by al-Tirmidhi (744), Abu Dawood (2421) and Ibn Maajah (1726) from ‘Abd-Allaah ibn Busr, from his sister, that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Do not fast on Saturdays apart from days when you are obliged to fast. If any one of you cannot find anything other than grape stalks or the twigs of a tree, let him chew it (to make sure that he is not fasting).” Classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in al-Irwa’ (960). Abu ‘Eesa al-Tirmidhi said: This is a hasan hadeeth. What is makrooh in this case is for a man to single out Saturday for fasting, because the Jews venerate Saturday. End quote.

Ibn Qudaamah (may Allaah have mercy on him) said in al-Mughni (3/52): Our companions said: It is makrooh to single out Saturday for fasting … what is makrooh is singling out that day. If he fasts another day along with it, then it is not makrooh, because of the hadeeth of Abu Hurayrah and Juwayriyah. If it coincides with a day that a person regularly fasts, it is not makrooh.

What is meant by the hadeeth of Abu Hurayrah is the report narrated by al-Bukhaari (1985) and Muslim (1144) from Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) who said: I heard the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) say: “No one of you should fast on Friday, unless he fasts (a day) before it or after it.”

The hadeeth of Juwayriyah was narrated by al-Bukhaari (1986) from Juwayriyah bint al-Haarith (may Allaah be pleased with her), that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) entered upon her on a Friday and she was fasting. He said; “Did you fast yesterday?” She said, “No.” He said: “Do you intend to fast tomorrow?” She said: “No.” He said: “Then break your fast.”

This hadeeth and the one before it clearly indicate that it is permissible to fast on a Saturday at times other than Ramadaan, for the one who fasts the Friday before.

It is proven in al-Saheehayn that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “The most beloved of fasting to Allaah is the fast of Dawood; he used to fast one day and not the next.”

In this case it is bound to happen that he will sometimes fast on a Saturday on its own. So it may be understood from this that if Saturday coincides with a day that he habitually fasts, such as ‘Arafah or ‘Ashoora’, there is nothing wrong with fasting on that day, even if it is on its own.

Al-Haafiz stated in al-Fath that an exception to the prohibition on fasting on Friday is made if a person habitually fasts on a certain day, such as ‘Arafah, and it coincides with Friday.

The same applies to Saturday. We have quoted the words of Ibn Qudaamah concerning that above.

Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (may Allaah have mercy on him) said:

It should be noted that different scenarios may apply with regard to fasting on a Saturday.

1 – It may be obligatory, such as observing a Ramadaan fast during Ramadaan or making it up later on, or observing a fast as expiation (kafaarah), or instead of offering a sacrifice when performing Hajj tamattu’, and so on. There is nothing wrong with that so long as he does not single it out deliberately thinking that there is some virtue in that.

2 – If he fasts on the Friday before, there is nothing wrong with it, because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said to one of the Mothers of the Believers who was fasting on a Friday: “Did you fast yesterday?” She said: “No.” He said: “Are you going to fast tomorrow?” She said, “No.” He said: “Then break your fast.” The words, “Are you going to fast tomorrow?” indicate that it is permissible to fast Saturday along with Friday.

3 – If it happens to be one of the days when it is prescribed to fast, such as Ayyaam al-Beed (the 13th, 14th and 15th of each hijri month), ‘Arafah, ‘Ashoora’, six days of Shawwaal for one who has fasted Ramadaan, and the ninth of Dhu’l-Hijjah. There is nothing wrong with that, because he is not fasting because it is Saturday, rather it is because it is one of the days when it is prescribed to fast.

4 – When it happens to be a day when he habitually fasts, such as a person whose habit is to fast alternate days, and the day that he fasts happens to be a Saturday, then there is nothing wrong with it, as the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said when he forbade fasting one or two days before Ramadaan begins: “except a man who (habitually) observes a fast, in which case let him fast.” This is similar.

5 – If he singles it out to observe a voluntary fast for one day only. This is what is forbidden, if the hadeeth forbidding it is proven to be saheeh.

End quote from Majmoo’ Fataawa wa Rasaa’il al-Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (20/57)

And Allaah knows best. http://islamqa.info/en/81621
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