On a proper study of science and philosophy it becomes clear that the science that we study today is a mixture of experimental observations, mathematics and a type of atheist philosophy. This atheist philosophy is present in science textbooks and is being taught in schools and colleges through science classes (although many of us are unaware about this). The presence of atheist philosophy in science is dangerous for the Muslim Ummah and it also seems to explain the observed atheist tendencies in students of science.
Thus, it is necessary to remove atheist philosophy from science and rebuild science based on Islamic principles.
I have separated out 8 principles based on which the rebuilding of science can be done. Most these principles are well founded in the Islamic tradition (i.e. is part of our Aqeeda) and others are found not to conflict with Islam.
1) Allah (and only Allah) created the world and everything in it.
(Including computers, softwares, aeroplanes, genetically modified crops etc.)
The statement that ‘Allah created humans and then humans created computers’ is not true. The truth is that Allah created humans and Allah created computers.
Quran states that Allah created the ships, that Allah creates human embryo in different successive creations etc.
2) The created world and the things in it cannot remain in existence on their own. It is Allah who sustains them.
Were Allah to stop sustaining the creation, it would cease to exist immediately.
This is contrary to the wrong belief held by many individuals that the world remains in existence on its own after creation.
3) Things in the created world do not have the power (or ability) to move, change or cause change.
It is Allah who creates their motion and change.
Fire does not have the ability to burn, medicine does not have the ability to cure diseases, water does not have the ability to quench thirst, Earth does not have the ability to move objects towards itself etc.
All power belongs to Allah. He creates the motion and change in objects at every instant.
4) Cause-effect relationships do not actually exist among the creation.
No created object can cause (or create) an effect and there is no necessity for certain cause-effect pairs to always occur together. Allah creates the cause and Allah creates the effect and He can create them in whichever way He likes.
Fire does not cause the burning. Both the fire and the burning are created separately by Allah. It is perfectly possible for Allah to create fire and cooling together instead (as it was in the case of Ibrahim Alayhissalam).
The most that can be said is that usually fire and burning are observed together. This is what we mean (or should mean) when we use phrases like ‘the fire burns’.
Asserting that things effect by their / Nature or by necessity is disbelief according to the religion
And affirming that thing effect by God-given power / Is sinful innovation, so pay no attention.”
Al-Kharida al-Bahiyya, Imam Ahmad al-Dardir
5) There are no absolute laws governing the created world.
Allah is not bound by laws or rules. He does what He wills.
The Scholars of Aqeeda mention that the observed relationships in creation are only Normative Rulings (Hukm Aadi) i.e. only a matter of habit (or pattern) not laws that should always hold true.
Also, the world is not governed by laws. It is controlled by Allah alone.
6) Scientific observations are relative and need not represent absolute truths.
A man standing on the earth sees the sun moving around the earth. A man standing on the sun may see the earth moving around the sun. Science on its own cannot say that one observation represents the truth and that the other does not. We may need revelation (wahy) to do that.
This principle is clearly demonstrated in the theories of modern science like the theory of relativity and quantum mechanics where the properties of the observed substance (mass, energy, time, wave-particle state etc.) changes with the change in conditions of the observer and the method of observation.
7) Patterns that repeat with limited accuracy can generally be observed in the creation of Allah.
When a stone is released from a height, generally Allah makes it come down. The manner and speed with which the stone is made to come down need not be exactly same in all cases (especially when measurements reach the microscopic level). But we can say that this pattern holds true within a range of tolerance (i.e. not completely accurate).
This is clearly seen in Quantum Mechanics where the location of particles (like electrons) are observed to follow patterns but only with limited accuracy.
8) The patterns in the creation of Allah need not repeat (or remain) although the probability of their repeating (or remaining) may be high.
Although it is generally observed that when a stone is released from a height, Allah makes it come down, it need not be true always. There can be cases where instead of coming down, Allah makes it go up (opposed to the general pattern). As such an action is rarely witnessed, it may be said that the event of the stone going down has a high probability of occurrence and the event of the stone going up has a low probability of occurrence.
It should be noted that the fact that an event has a high probability of occurrence does not mean that it will occur or vice versa.
Science is the study of patterns in the creation of Allah for the purpose of enabling us to make better decisions in our worldly affairs.
This knowledge may be used for matters related to religion like finding the direction of Qibla or not directly related to religion like deciding the best technique for cultivating crops.
Here I quote the response that Islamic Scholars gave when asked about the principles mentioned.
Mufti Ebrahim Salejee (Replied on 21.03.2019):
“Thus far we don't find any inaccuracies. We will go on reflecting over the points. If we find some point that needs more elucidation, insha Allah we will inform you.
And Allah Ta'ala (الله تعالى) knows best.”
Mufti Ebrahim Salejee initially studied at the Waterval Islamic Institute, South Africa. He studied further at Darul Ulum Deoband, India and later completed Ifta course under the supervision of Mufti Mahmood Hasan Gangohi.
Mufti Taahir Hansa (Replied on 29.03.2019):
“The points made in the attached document are correct.
And Allah Knows Best.” (Please see attached document for full text. Too much to quote here)
Replied on behalf of Fatwa Department, Jamiatul Ulama (KZN) - Council of Muslim Theologians. (which is headed by Mufti Ebrahim Desai)
Additionally, some of the points were finalized after discussions with Ustahd Mohammed Tayssir Safi (although I am unable to quote a general reply here).
Ustahd Mohammed Tayssir Safi was born in Dubai to Damascene parents and raised for the most part in Michigan. He spent the years after undergrad pursuing Sacred Knowledge. His studies took him to Syria, Egypt, and Tarim, Yemen. He is currently continuing his study in Istanbul, Turkey.