Part 1: Ideology between India and Pakistan
Throughout history, there has NEVER been a country or state called India. It has always been a loose conglomerate of independent fiefdoms which pledged loyalty to a higher power. They also switched loyalty to gain benefits.
The Muslims ruled India with enormous military strength but were constantly putting down rebellion, bribing certain fiefdoms, coercing others to stay loyal.
The British tried to unite “India” as a nation and they also bribed, cajoled, wooed and coerced fiefdoms to stay loyal to them.
It is because India is a truly “multi-ethnic” society with diverse languages, cultures and religions. There is not a lot to unite the people of India.
The only possible slogan to unite the people of India could be religion but here we hit a problem:
- Hinduism: While it counts as a religion in the world but when you study Hinduism you realist very quickly that it is based on mythology and it is strictly based on casts. It is for this very reason, adherents have broken off and joined the ranks of Buddhists, Sikhs and Christians (under the allure and appeal of the British empire). The mythological underpinnings of Hinduism lay itself open to logical counter movements like “Rationalism” and “Atheism”.
- Islam: It truly has the power to transcend race, ethnicity, language, culture and bind people together.
After 1947, India and Pakistan have had two separate sets of problems.
- United India: There is no foundation to unite citizens of India. Hinduism will not do it. The only possible (temporary) solution is Nationalism and economy but Nationalism does not come naturally to the (population) of India as they are diverse. If the Hinduism is forced upon the population (it may yield short term dividends) but in the long term it will alienate people but Hinduism is nothing but rule of the upper cast Hindus. Deep down, the “Non upper cast Hindus” and minorities in India realize it and they are still the numerical majority. The rise of Hindutva will bring about the downfall of India because its own citizens will revolt! In fact, emphasizing any religion in India will bring about its downfall. Secularism is the need of India.
- United Pakistan: The only way to galvanize “Muslims” to seek their rights was to use Islam. Muslims of Bengal and UP are poles apart in looks, language, culture, outlook, preferences and the only way to bind them is “Islam”. When “Islam” transcends all other identities get suppressed. Majority of citizens of Pakistan may not be practicing and may not be literate but they are still bound together by a single ideology. Secularism will bring about the downfall of Pakistan. Islam is the need of Pakistan.
This is the key ideological difference everyone needs to understand between India and Pakistan.