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Jumu'ah (Friday)

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#16 [Permalink] Posted on 17th February 2012 07:45
Walking to the Masjid on Jumu'ah


By going walking for the jumu'ah salaat, one gets the reward of fasting (nawafil fast) for one year for every step that he takes.
(Tirmidhi)
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#17 [Permalink] Posted on 2nd March 2012 07:20
Prayer During The Friday Khutbah


The Messenger of Allah (salallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) has instructed that whenever a person enters the masjid, he should perform two rak'ats of prayer before sitting down. This prayer is called tahiyyat al-masjid [greeting of the masjid], and it is a sunna prayer.

However, these two rak'ats are not to be performed at times in which prayers are undesirable [makruh]. Islamic law has designated the following times as undesirable:

(1) after the Fajr prayer until sunrise;
(2) after the 'Asr prayer until sunset;
(3) from the beginning of sunrise until the sun is a spear's length above the horizon [i.e. when a distance equal to the sun's diameter appears between the sun and the horizon];
(4) from the time the sun is at its highest point in the sky until it moves on
[istiwa']; and
(5) from when the sun turns yellow before sunset until after it has set.
Hence, it is recommended to perform the tahiyyatal-masjid upon entering the

masjid at any time other than these disliked times. There is however one other
exception to this general rule. Since the Messenger of Allah (salallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) forbade any form of prayer or conversation during the Friday sermon [khutba], it is not allowed that a person perform the tahiyyat al-masjid upon entering the masjid while the sermon is in progress. This is the opinion of the Hanafis and many others.

Some scholars state that a person entering the masjid at such a time should still perform a set of two rak'ats prior to sitting down and listening to the imam's sermon. They go as far as designating it a desirable act even at that time.

The following is a discussion regarding this very issue. It seeks to determine the exact procedure a person should follow when he enters the masjid during the Friday sermon. The evidence used by the Hanafi school to establish the impermissibility of performing salat while the sermon is in progress will be presented first; after which we will analyze the few seemingly contradictory narrations that are used to prove the permissibility of prayer in this time.


The Qur'an On This Issue


Allah, the Exalted, says:

"So when the Qur'an is recited, listen to it and remain silent, that you may receive mercy." (al-Qur'an 7:204).

This verse was revealed concerning salat (and, according to some opinions, concerning the sermon too). Now, since the sermon has been likened to prayer and since the verses of the Qur'an are recited in it, the command of this verse shall apply to the sermon as well; which means that a person would have to observe silence during the sermon and listen attentively to what is being said. This also means that the person should not occupy himself in prayer during the sermon.

It is related from 'Umar (radiallahu anh) that the two sermons on Friday are equal to two rak'ats of prayer. This is probably why the rak'ats of Friday prayer are only two, whereas the rak'ats of Zuhr are four. He states: "The sermon is equivalent to two rak'ats; therefore, whoever misses the sermon should perform four rak'ats [of Zuhr] instead." (Musannaf lbn Abi Shayba 2:128, Musannaf Abd al-Razzaq)

It should be remembered that this was his personal view, and the ruling of the majority of scholars is that a person should still join the two rak'ats Friday congregation with the imam even if he happened to miss the sermon.

Since the sermon is similar to the prayer, it could be concluded from this that one should also remain silent and listen carefully while the sermon is in progress, just as one would while in prayer. The wisdom behind disallowing all forms of prayer, remembrance [dhikr], supplication [du'], and even enjoining the right and forbidding the wrong [amr bi'l-ma'ruf and nahy'an al-munkar] -which is permissible on all other occasions-is due to the fact that if a person engages in tahi'yat al-masjid or any other activity while the sermon is in progress, he will not be able to listen attentively to the imam's sermon.

The Ahaadeeth On This Issue


1) Abu Hurayra (radiallahu anh) narrates that the Messenger of Allah (salallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) said: "Whoever says, "Remain silent," while the imam is delivering the sermon, he has nullified [his reward]." (Sunan al-Tirmidhi 1:114)

2) Abu Hurayra (radiallahu anh) narrates from the Messenger of Allah (salallahu 'alayhi wa sallam): "When you say, "Remain silent," to your companion on Friday while the imam is delivering the sermon, you have nullified [your reward]." (Sahih Muslim 1:281, Sharh Ma'ani 'l-athar)

Since merely reminding another person to keep quiet during the Friday sermon has been prohibited by these hadiths, it follows that tahiyyat al-masjid, which is a supererogatory [nafl] action, must also be disallowed while the Friday sermon is being delivered. The following hadith further clarifies this deduction:

3) 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar (radiallahu anhuma) narrates that he heard the Messenger of Allah (salallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) say, "When one of you enters the masjid to find the imam on the pulpit [delivering the sermon], then no prayer or conversation [is permitted] until the imam finishes." (Majma' al-zawa'id 2:184)

This hadith in itself may have been classified by some as being defective due to the narrator in its chain, Ayyub ibn al-Nahik. There is mixed criticism about him. Some scholars of hadith have called him trustworthy, while others have called him weak. However, despite this, there are many other aspects which bolster its acceptability. Ibn Abi Shayba has related some other narrations of Ibn 'Umar (radiallahu anhuma) (the narrator of this hadith) which would indicate that Ibn 'Umar's personal opinion and practice was in conformance with his narration. This adds strength to his narration.

One of the principles of hadith [usul al-hadith] is that any narration supported by the constant practice of the Companions (radiallahu anhum) and Followers (rahmatullahi alaihim) will acquire enough strength to be used as evidence. This means that the message of the above hadith, despite the criticism leveled at its chain, can be accepted. The fact that there are many other rigorously authenticated [sahih] hadiths that relay the same message as the above hadith makes it even more legitimate to use as proof. We will see in the following paragraphs that this opinion was not an isolated one but was rather the opinion of numerous Companions and Followers.

4) It is related from Salman al-Farsi (radiallahu anh) that the Messenger of Allah (salallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) said: "A person who performs the ritual bath [ghusl] on Friday, attains as much purity as he can, applies oil or some scent found in the house; then departs for the masjid and does not force two people apart [to sit between them]; and performs as much prayer as Allah has willed for him, and then maintains silence while the imam speaks, will have all his sins from the present Friday to the next forgiven." (Sahih al-Bukhari 1:122, Sharh Ma'ani 'l-athar 1:369)

5) A similar narration of Abu Hurayra (radiallahu anh) in Sahih Muslim has the following variation: [...] and performs what has been ordained for him, then observes silence until the imam finishes his sermon... (Sahih Muslim 1:283)

6) Another narration of Abu Hurayra and Abu Sa'id al-Khudri (radiallahu anhuma) contains the following variation: [...] and performs what Allah has ordained for him, then observes silence when the imam appears... (Sunan Abi Dawud 50 U)

7) Nubaysha al-Hudhali (radiallahu anh) narrates from the Messenger of Allah: "When a Muslim performs ghusl [ritual bath] on Friday, approaches the masjid without inconveniencing anybody; and if he finds that the imam has nor yet appeared, he engrosses himself in prayer for as long as possible; and if he finds the imam present, he sits silently and listens attentively until the imam completes the Friday prayer..." (Musnad Ahmad)

Imam Haythami states regarding the above hadith that "Imam Ahmad has narrated this hadith and its narrators are those of Sahih al-Bukhari except for the shaykh [teacher] of Ahmad, who is trustworthy." (Majma' al-zawa'id 2:171)

None of the above hadiths mention that it is virtuous or even permissible to perform prayer once the imam has appeared for the sermon. The reason why this has been prohibited is due to the musalli's inability to attentively listen to the imam's sermon and to the verses of the Qur'an he is reciting.


The Companions (رضي الله عنهم) And Followers (رحمة الله عليهم) On This Isse


1) It is related from 'Abdullah ibn 'Abbas and Ibn 'Umar (radiallahu anhum) "that they disliked any prayer or conversation on Friday once the imam had appeared [to deliver the sermon]. (Musannaf lbn Abi Shayba 2:124)

2) It is narrated from Ibn 'Umar (radiallahu anhuma) that he would remain in prayer on Friday, and when the imam would appear he would stop praying. (Musannaf Ibn Abi Shayba 2:124)

3) 'Uqba ibn 'Amir (rahmatullahi alaih) has been reported as saying that prayer while the imam is on the pulpit [minbar] is a disobedience [ma'siya] (Sharh Ma'ani 'l-athar 1:370)

4) It is narrated from Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri (rahmatullahi alaih) that a person [who enters the masjid on Friday while the imam is delivering the sermon] should sit down and not engage himself in any prayer. (Sharh Ma'ani 'l-athar 1:369)

5) It is narrated from Khalid al-Hadhdha' (rahmatullahi alaih) that Abu Qilaba (rahmatullahi alaih) arrived while the imam was delivering the sermon. He sat down and did not perform any prayer (Sharh Ma'ani 'l-athar 1:369)

6) Abu Malik al-Qurazi (rahmatullahi alaih) narrates that the "sitting" of the imam on the pulpit [minbar] signals an end to all prayer, and his "sermon" [signals an end] to all talking. (Sharh Ma'ani 'l-athar 1:370)

7) Ibrahim al-Nakh'ay (rahmatullahi alaih) says, 'Alqama (rahmatullahi alaih) was asked, "Do you speak while the imam is delivering the sermon or after he has arrived [to deliver it]?" He said no (Sharh Ma'ani 'l-athar 1:370)

8) It is related from Mujahid (rahmatullahi alaih) that he disliked to pray while the imam was delivering the sermon (Sharh Ma'ani 'l- athar 1:370)

Another important point is that the angels have also been reported to wrap up their registers as soon as the sermon begins. The following hadiths reveal that as the imam begins his sermon, the angels put away their records in order to listen to the sermon.

9) There is a narration of Abu Hurayra (radiallahu anh) in Sahih al-Bukhari, as well as in other collections, regarding the angels recording the names and times of the worshippers arriving for the sermon on Friday. Towards the end of this hadith, the Messenger of Allah (salallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) says, "Thereafter, when the imam appears, the angels wrap up their records and begin to listen to the admonition [dhikr]." (Sahih Muslim 1:283, Sahih al Bukhari 1:127, Sunan al-Nasa'i 205)

10) A narration from Abu Umama (radiallahu anh) states: "When the imam appears, the records [of the angels] are put away." (Majma' al-zawa'id 2:177)

11) A narration from Abu Sa'id al-Khudri (radiallahu anh) states: "When the muezzin calls for prayer [adhan] and the imam sits on the pulpit, the records [of the angels] are wrapped up, and they enter the masjid listening attentively to the admonition [dhikr]." (Majma' al-zawa'id 2:177)

12) In his commentary on Sahih Muslim, Imam Nawawi (rahmatullahi alaih) has stated that the same (i.e. that no prayer during the sermon) was the practice of 'Umar, 'Uthman, and 'Ali (radiallahu anhum). (Sharh Sahih Muslim 1:288)

13) Allama Shawkani (rahmatullahi alaih) states that the great hadith master Zayn al-Din 'Iraqi (rahmatullahi alaih) has related the same practice from Muhammad ibn Sirin, Qadi Shurayh, Ibrahim al- Nakh'ay, Qatada, and Zuhri (rahmatullahi alaihim).

14) Ibn Abi Shayba (rahmatullahi alaih) has also reported this opinion from Sa'id ibn al-Musayyib, Mujahid, 'Ata', and 'Urwa ibn al-Zubayr (rahmatullahi alaihim).

These narrations highlight and further establish the position of the Hanafis on the issue of prayer during the Friday sermon. Their opinion is that it is impermissible to perform salat while the sermon is in progress.


Analyzing The Seemingly Contradictory Hadiths


1) Jabir (radiallahu anh) narrates: Sulayk al-Ghatafani (radiallahu anh) arrived on Friday and sat down while the Messenger (salallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) was delivering the sermon. The Messenger (salallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) ordered him to stand and perform two rak'ats and to make them short. (Sahih Muslim 1:287)

This hadith is used by those who claim that it is permissible to perform two rak'ats during the sermon. This however is very difficult to accept due to the following reasons:

(a) This hadith cannot stand as evidence for prayer being permissible at the time of the sermon, because it speaks of a lone and isolated incident. It was only once that the Messenger (salallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) ordered somebody to rise and perform two rak'ats during the sermon. In fact, there are a number of narrations which state that the Messenger (salallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) ordered people to sit down during the sermon.

There is one hadith about a desert Arab [a'rabi] who had come to Allah's Messenger (salallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) to complain about drought, then had appeared a week later to complain about heavy floods. This person arrived during the Friday sermon, but the Messenger (salallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) did not command him to perform two rak'ats.

Anas (radiallahu anh) narrates: A person entered [the masjid] on a Friday from the door opposite the pulpit upon which the Messenger (salallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) was delivering the sermon. He faced the Messenger (salallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) and said, "O Messenger of Allah, properties have been destroyed and the pathways blocked. Pray to Allah that he send us rain." The narrator says that the Messenger (salallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) raised his hands and prayed, "O Allah, grant us rain." It began to rain, and, by Allah, we did not see the sun for a week. Thereafter, the person arrived through the same door the following Friday while the Messenger (salallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) was delivering the sermon. He faced the Messenger (salallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) and said, "O Messenger of Allah, property have been destroyed and the pathways blocked. Pray Allah to to stop the rain." (Sahih al-Bukhari 1:137)

Another narration tells us that the Messenger (salallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) once observed a person during the sermon who was hurrying over people's shoulders. The Messenger (salallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) told him: "Sit, for you have inconvenienced [the people]." (Sunan al-Nasa'i 207, Abi Dawud)

It is quite clear that the Messenger (salallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) did not order him to perform any prayer, but told him to sit down quickly. In another narration of Jabir (radiallahu anh) it states: [On one occasion] the Messenger (salallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) positioned himself on the pulpit and said, "Be seated." Ibn Mas'ud (radiallahu anh) [who had just entered] sat down instantly by the door of the masjid. When the Messenger (salallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) saw him he said, "Come forth, O 'Abdullah ibn Mas'ud." (Sunan Abi Dawud 156)

Again, the Messenger (salallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) did not order him to perform prayer, but instead told him to come forth and sit. A hadith in Sahih Muslim states:
'Umar (radiallahu anh) was once delivering the sermon when 'Uthman (radiallahu anh) arrived. 'Umar (radiallahu anh) admonished him for not having performing the ritual bath [ghusl], but did not order him to perform any prayer. (Sahih Muslim 1:280)

None of these incidents indicate a command for prayer while the sermon is in progress. In fact, they instruct that one should sit down while the imam is delivering the sermon, which proves that the one occasion on which the
Messenger (salallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) ordered Sulayk al-Ghatafani (radiallahu anh) to stand and pray was due to another reason. The hadith of Sulayk therefore cannot be used to prove the desirability of prayer during the Friday sermon.

The full account of Sulayk al-Ghatafani's incident is as follows: Once, while the Messenger (salallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) was sitting on the pulpit waiting to begin the sermon, a Companion named Sulayk ibn Hudba al-Ghatafani (radiallahu anh) who had on very torn and worn clothing entered the masjid. The Messenger (salallahu 'alayhi wa sallam), after seeing his poverty-stricken state, ordered him to stand and pray. He did this so the other Companions could also observe his condition. The Messenger (salallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) remained silent until he had finished his prayer; then, after seeing that the other Companions had taken a look at him, he encouraged them to contribute to him, which they did with open hearts. One can clearly see that this was a very special circumstance, in which the Messenger (salallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) ordered Sulayk to stand up and pray so that his condition would become known to the Companions. Consequently, this command cannot be classified as generally applicable as it was issued only once to this particular Companion.

(b) The above explanation should be sufficient to understand the true nature of the
incident. Another explanation mentioned by some scholars is that the Messenger (salallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) gave the order to pray before commencing the sermon and then waited silently until the Companion had completed his prayer. The Messenger (salallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) did not recite or say anything while Sulayk prayed, as is understood from a hadith in Sahih Muslim: "Sulayk al-Ghatafani (radiallahu anh) entered the masjid on Friday while the Messenger (salallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) was sitting on the pulpit [and had not yet stood for the sermon]." (Sahih Muslim 1:287)

It is a proven fact that the Messenger of Allah (salallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) would deliver his sermons standing. Hence, for him to be sitting down (as the narration states) means that he had not yet begun the sermon; so Sulayk's (radiallahu anh) prayer was not performed during the Messenger's (salallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) sermon but before it. This point is further substantiated by Imam Nasa'i's (rahmatullahi alaih) inclusion of this narration under a chapter entitled, "Chapter on Prayer Before the Sermon." This clearly indicates that according to Imam Nasa'i (rahmatullahi alaih), this incident took place before the sermon had begun.

(c) There are some narrations, however, which indicate that the Messenger (salallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) had already begun the sermon when Sulayk (radiallahi anh) entered. The meaning of these narrations is that he was just about to begin the sermon when Sulayk (radiallahu anh) walked in.

(d) There are also other narrations which mention that Allah's Messenger (salallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) interrupted his sermon and remained silent until Sulayk (radiallahu anh) finished his prayer. The narration in Musannaf Ibn Abi Shayba contains the following words: "The Messenger (salallahu 'alayhi wa sallam), when ordering the Companion to perform two rak'ats, discontinued his sermon until he had finished the two rak'ats." (Musannaf Ibn Abi Shayba 2:110), and the narration of Daraqutni contains the following words: "Anas (radiallahu anh) narrates that a person from the Qays tribe entered while the
Messenger (salallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) was delivering the sermon. The Messenger (salallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) told him to stand up and perform two rak'ats and discontinued the sermon until the person completed his prayer."
(Sunan al-Daraqutni 2:15 U)

This means that the Companion had completed his salat and was no longer
engaged in it while the Messenger (salallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) was delivering his sermon.

(e) Yet another explanation for this incident is that, since the Messenger (salallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) had interrupted his sermon and begun to converse with him, the prohibition of talking or praying was lifted and Sulayk (radiallahu anh) had to no longer adhere to the command "remain silent and listen." Therefore, for him to perform two rak'ats while the Messenger (salallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) remained silent (and waited for him) was permissible. Ibn al-'Arabi (rahmatullahi alaih) has offered this explanation and considered it most accurate.

(f) It has been already mentioned that the Messenger (salallahu 'alayhi wa sallam)
ordered Sulayk (radiallahu anh) to rise and perform the prayer so as to expose his poverty- stricken state in front of the Companions. In this regard, a narration in Sunan al-Tirmidhi and al-Nasa'i from Abu Sa'id (radiallahu anh) states: "A person entered the masjid in a shabby state." (Sunan al-Tirmidhi 1:93 U, al-
Nasa'i 1:208 U)

(g) Another point that should not be overlooked here is that for the two rak'ats to be considered tahiyyat al-masjid, they must be offered immediately upon entering the masjid and prior to sitting down. However, we find in some versions of this narration that Sulayk (radiallahu anh) had sat down upon his arrival, after which the Messenger (salallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) had instructed him to stand and pray. The narration in Sahih Muslim states: "Stand up and pray," (Sahih Muslim 1:287) and another narration states: "Sulayk (radiallahu anh) sat down without praying, and the Messenger (salallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) asked him if he had performed two rak'ats? He replied that he had not, so the Messenger (salallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) ordered him to stand up and perform two rak'ats. (Sahih Muslim 1:287)

This proves that he was ordered to stand up and pray in order to reveal his
condition to the other Companions.

When the above points are taken into consideration, it makes it quite difficult to claim that tahiyyat al-masjid was permitted at the time of the sermon. The incident of Sulayk (radiallahu anh) was a unique and isolated one, and not one instructing the whole Umma to pray at that time, especially when there are other narrations that clearly prohibit its performance.

2) Another seemingly contradictory narration is as follows: Jabir (radiallahu anh) narrates that once while the Messenger of Allah (salallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) was delivering the sermon he said, "When you [enter the masjid] and find the imam delivering the sermon... or [he said] "[...] and find that the imam has arrived [for the sermon], you should perform two rak'ats." (Sahih al-Bukhari 1:156)

This is another narration that is used to establish the desirability of tahiyyatal-
masjid at the time of the sermon. The same words are narrated by Imam Muslim (rahmatullahi alaih) in his Sahih as part of the narration of Sulayk al-Ghatafani (radiallahi anh) (Sahih Muslim1:287)

It can be said that this narration is in contradiction with the command of the Holy Qur'an and many other rigorously authenticated hadiths that have already been mentioned above. Many explanations have been offered in order to remove the conflict between this hadith and the hadiths of prohibition. One explanation is that the phrase, "delivering his sermon," in the narration, actually means, "about to begin the sermon" (i.e. the imam was sitting waiting to begin the sermon). This is one way of reconciling the narrations so that no contradiction remains.

Otherwise, the second way to deal with this issue is to leave it as an independent rigorously authenticated narration in conflict with the other rigorously authenticated narrations of prohibition; and determine, in the light of the principles of hadith [usul al-hadith], which of the narrations are more superior and stronger.

The result of such an analysis would be that the hadiths of prohibition presented by the Hanafis are stronger for a number of reasons:

(a) The narrations used by the Hanafis are of a prohibitive nature (i.e. they prohibit the prayer at a particular time), whereas this narration (hadith 2) is of a permissive nature. One of the principles of hadith [usul al-hadith] is that when there is a conflict between hadiths, a hadith prohibiting something is considered superior to one that permits it. Therefore, since the hadiths presented by the Hanafis are of a prohibitive nature, they are considered superior to those hadiths which are of a permissive nature (i.e. hadith 2).

(b) The narrations of prohibition presented by the Hanafis are more in harmony with the implications of the above mentioned Qur'anic verses, which prohibit anything that would distract a person from listening to the sermon.

(c) The narrations presented by the Hanafis are substantiated by the practice of
many of the Companions (radiallahu anhum) and Followers (rahmatullahi alaihim), as has been previously detailed; whereas this narration, if taken as an independent narration, is only supported by the lone narration of Sulayk (radiallahu anh).

(e) There is greater caution in acting upon the hadiths prohibiting tahiyyat al- masjid at the time of the sermon than upon those permitting it, since tahiyyat al- masjid is not considered an obligatory prayer in any opinion. While holding it permissible, neglecting it would not be considered a sin. However, if one were to pray during the sermon while holding the view that it is prohibited, he would be considered sinful for going against what is believed to be a prohibition.

Conclusion


Many narrations state that the Messenger (salallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) had discontinued his sermon while Sulayk (radiallahu anh) performed his prayer. What would happen today if many people began to arrive late, and worse still, all at different times (as is to be observed nowadays in the masjids)? How many times and for how long would the imam remain silent, and when would he be able to complete the sermon?

The Hanafis have taken all these aspects into consideration in forming their opinion. They have adhered to the hadiths of prohibition and have answered and explained all the seemingly conflicting narrations. Their view has also been fully substantiated by the statements of various Companions (radiallahu anhum) and Followers (rahmatullahi alaihim). [color=green]Therefore, we can safely conclude that after taking all the above points into consideration, it will be prohibited to perform two rak'ats of tahiyyat al-masjid after the imam has started his sermon.
[Fiqh al-Imam, Mufti 'Abdur Rahman Ibn Yusuf حفظه الله]

http://www.muftisays.com/blog/Seifeddine-M/593_23-11-2010/prayer-during-the-friday-khutbah-.html
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#18 [Permalink] Posted on 15th March 2012 12:01
Jumu'ah - Rules And Ettiquettes

Shaykh Mumtaz Ul Haq (حفظه الله)


Halalified YT Audio


Contents of the lecture

-Significance of the day of Jumu'ah.
-What are the deterrents for missing Jumu'ah prayer.
-What to read excessively on the day of Jumu'ah
-Why 2 azaans are done for Jumu'ah prayer.
-language of the Jumu'ah khutbah
and much more...


Hanafi Fiqh Channel - http://www.youtube.com/user/hanafifiqh

See also:

Jumu'ah (Friday) - http://www.muftisays.com/forums/du-aas-supplications/5854/jumu-ah-%28friday%29.html
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#19 [Permalink] Posted on 6th April 2012 14:44
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#20 [Permalink] Posted on 13th April 2012 09:22
When does the time in which it is mustahabb to do ghusl on Friday begin?


The scholars differed as to when the time for doing ghusl on Friday begins. The majority (including the Shaafa'is, Hanbalis and Zaahiris) were of the view that it begins from dawn on Friday. This was narrated from Ibn 'Umar (رضي الله عنهما).

Al-Khateeb al-Sharbeeni (رحمه الله) said concerning the time for doing ghusl on Friday:

The time for that is the true dawn, because the reports connected it to the day, such as the words of the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allaah be upon him): "Whoever does ghusl on Friday then sets out in the first hour..." So it is not valid if done before then.

And it was said: that the time for it begins halfway through the night as is the case on Eid.

Doing it close to the time when one goes for Jumu'ah prayer is better, because it is more likely to achieve the purpose of eliminating bad smells. If there is a conflict between doing ghusl and going early to the prayer, then paying attention to ghusl takes priority, as al-Zarkashi رحمه الله said: because there is a difference of opinion as to whether it is obligatory. End quote. [Mughni al-Muhtaaj, 1/558]

Al-Bahooti al-Hanbali (رحمه الله) said:

The beginning of its time is the break of dawn; doing ghusl before then is not valid... but it is better to do ghusl just before going to Jumu'ah, because that is closer to achieving the purpose. End quote. [Kashshaaf al-Qinaa', 1/150]

Ibn Hazm (رحمه الله) said:

The first of the times for the ghusl mentioned is just after dawn breaks on Friday. ... we have narrated from Naafi' رضي الله عنه from Ibn 'Umar رضي الله عنهما that he used to do ghusl after dawn broke on Friday, and that is acceptable as the ghusl for Jumu'ah. It was narrated from Mujaahid رحمه الله, al-Hasan رحمه الله and Ibraaheem al-Nakha'i رحمه الله that they said: If a man does ghusl after dawn breaks, that is acceptable. End quote. [Al-Muhalla, 1/266]

According to Imam Maalik رحمه الله, the time for ghusl on Friday begins just before going to the prayer, and it is not acceptable except at the time of going; if a person does ghusl after dawn and does not go to the mosque straightaway, that is not acceptable and it is recommended for him to repeat it.

Al-Nawawi (رحمه الله) said:

if he does ghusl for Friday before dawn, that is not acceptable according to the sound opinion of our madhhab, and this is also the view of the majority of scholars, but al-Awzaa'i رحمه الله said that it is acceptable.

If he does ghusl for Jumu'ah after dawn has broken, it is acceptable in our view and in the view of the majority. This was narrated by Ibn al-Mundhir رحمه الله from al-Hasan رحمه الله, Mujaahid رحمه الله, al-Nakha'i رحمه الله, al-Thawri رحمه الله, Ahmad رحمه الله, Ishaaq رحمه الله and Abu Thawr رحمه الله.

Maalik رحمه الله said: It is not valid except when going to Jumu'ah.

All of them say that it is not acceptable before dawn, apart from al-Awzaa'i رحمه الله who said: it is acceptable for him to do ghusl before dawn for both janaabah and Jumu'ah. End quote. [Al-Majmoo', 4/408; see also Haashiyat al-'Adawi, 1/379; al-Taaj wa'l-Ikleel, 2/543]

The first view (that the time for it begins at the break of dawn) was favoured by Shaykh Ibn Baaz (رحمه الله). Shaykh Ibn 'Uthaymeen (رحمه الله) said: Ghusl for Jumu'ah begins at the break of dawn, but it is better not to do ghusl until after the sun has risen, because the day has certainly begun after sunrise, and because the time before sunrise is the time for Fajr prayer, and the time for Fajr prayer has not ended yet, so it is better not to do ghusl until after the sun has risen. Then it is better not to do ghusl until the time for going to Jumu'ah, so that he will be going to Jumu'ah immediately after purifying himself. End quote. [Majmoo' Fataawa Ibn 'Uthaymeen, 16/142]

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#21 [Permalink] Posted on 20th April 2012 12:26
Fiqh Lesson - Jumu'ah


Mufti Muhammad Tosir Miah


Part 1


Youtube Video


Part 2


Youtube Video

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#22 [Permalink] Posted on 11th May 2012 11:54
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#23 [Permalink] Posted on 11th May 2012 12:16
The Language Of The Friday Khutbah


By Mufti Taqi Usmani


Preface


In substantial number of mosques in different parts of USA and some other western countries the Khutbah of Friday is delivered in English or other local languages. My respected brother Dr. Muhammad Ismail Madani asked me to explain the correct Shari'ah position about the language of the Khutbah. Certain articles have appeared in Urdu for the purpose but the English knowing people cannot benefit from them, therefore, it was suggested by my learned brother that I should write an article in English. The present booklet is meant to fulfill this need and I hope that it will clarify doubts on the subject. I would request the readers to consider the points raised in this article with an impartial and unbaised approach because the matter relates to a very important Islamic mode of worship. May Allah guide us to the straight path according to His own pleasure.

Muhammad Taqi Usmani

It is one of the basic requirements of the Friday prayer that it should be preceded by a Khutbah (sermon) delivered by the Imam. It is Wajib (mandatory) for every Muslim to attend the Khutbah from the very beginning. Being a part of the Jumu'ah prayer; it has some special rules and traits which distinguish it from the normal lectures given on other occasions. One of these special traits is that like the prayer (Salah) it is delivered in Arabic. All the Muslims have been delivering the Khutbah of Friday in no other language than Arabic, even where the audience does not understand its meaning. It was in the present century for the first time that the idea of delivering the Khutbah in other languages emerged in some Muslim societies where majority of the audience could not understand Arabic properly. The intention behind this change was that without letting the people understand its contents, the Khutbah can hardly be of a meaningful use for the general people who are addressed by it. Conversely, if Khutbah is delivered in a local language, a very useful message can be conveyed through it every Friday and it can serve as an effective medium for educating people in a wide area of Islamic teachings.

Apparently, the argument seems to be very logical. That is why it has found currency in the countries far from the centers of deeper Islamic knowledge. But before we accept it on its face value, we should first examine it in. the light of the Holy Qur'an, the Sunnah of the Holy Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم , the practice of his companions and the juristic views adopted by different schools of Islamic jurisprudence.

It is true that Islam being a universal religion, does not want to restrict it to a particular race or language. The Holy Qur'an has mentioned in express terms:

و ما ارسلنا من رسول الا بلسان قومه

"We never sent, a messenger but in the language of the nation he was sent to."

The Holy Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم was so keen to convey the Islamic message to all foreign nations in their own languages that he sent some of his companions, like Zayd ibn Harithah رضى الله عنه to Syria to learn the Hebrew and the Syriac languages, so that he may preach Islam to the nations who did not know Arabic.

But at the same time, we notice that while leaving a wide spectrum of education and preaching open to any language convenient for the purpose, Islam has specified some limited functions to be performed in Arabic only. For example, it is mandatory for every Muslim to perform his five times prayers (Salah) in Arabic. This rule applies to all non-Arabs also who cannot normally understand what they are reciting, rather, sometimes it is difficult for them to learn the exact pronunciation of the Arabic words used in the prayers.

Likewise, Adhan is the call for attending the congregation of Salah. It is addressed to the local people. But it is made obligatory that it is pronounced in Arabic. Its translation into any other language is not acceptable. Similarly, while performing Hajj we are directed to read talbiyah (لبيك اللهمّ لبيك) in Arabic. The translation of these words cannot serve the purpose. While greeting each other, we are obligated to say "السلام عليكم" in the exact Arabic words. "Peace Upon You" an exact translation of "السلام عليكم" cannot fulfill the requirement of the recognized (masnoon) greeting even though the former expression is more comprehensible for an English knowing person than the latter. Similarly, while commencing an important work it is desirable to say "بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم ". These specific Arabic words may be translated into English or any other language easily understood by the speaker and the addressee but it will always be preferable to recite the original Arabic words.

The emphasis on exact Arabic words in some such matters is not based on any bias in favor of the Arabic language, because Islam has always been proponent of inter-nationalism rather than nationalism. The Holy Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم has himself eradicated the prides based on race, color and language. He announced in his landmark sermon of his last Hajj that:

لا فضل لعربى على عجمى

"An Arab has no superiority over a non-Arab."

However, for being an internationally united ummah, the Muslim should have some common features, specially in the ways of their worship. The modes of worship which require some oral recitations have, therefore, been prescribed in a manner that all recitations are carried out in one common language, regardless of the linguistic affiliation of the recitors. Arabic has been selected for this purpose, because it is the language in which Qur'an was revealed and in which the Holy Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم addressed the humankind. The Holy Qur'an and Sunnah of the Holy Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم have been taken as the basic resources from where the rules of Shari'ah are deduced. Both being in Arabic, it is always desirable that a Muslim acquaints himself with it to the best possible extent. To make Arabic a common medium of expression for all Muslims, at least in the ritual recitings, serves this purpose also. When a non-Arab Muslim performs prayer in Arabic five times a day , he automatically establishes a strong relationship with the Qur'anic language which makes him understand a number of the terms and phrases used in the Holy Qur'an and Sunnah.

In short, it is enjoined upon the Muslims in some modes of worship that their oral recitations must be in Arabic. Therefore, to resolve the issue of the language of Khutbah we will have to examine whether the Khutbah of Friday is a form of worship or it is an ordinary lecture meant only to educate people.


The following points may help knowing the correct position in this respect


1. It is established by authentic resources that the Khutbah of Friday is a part of the prayer and stands for two Rak`at of prayer. Every day, other than Friday, the prayer of zuhr consist of four Rak`ats, while on Friday the number of Rak`at of the Jumu`ah prayer has been reduced to two, and the other two Rak`ats have been substituted by the Khutbah. Sayyidna Umar ,رضى الله عنه, the second caliph of the Holy Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم says:

The Khutbah has been prescribed in lieu of two rakats. Whosoever fails to deliver Khutbah must pray four rakat.

2. The Holy Qur'an has named the Khutbah as Dhikr in the following verse:




"O believers, when there is a call for Salah on Friday, rush for the Dhikr of Allah and leave trade. That is better for you, if you only knew." (al-Jumu'ah: 9)

Here the word 'Dhikr' stands for the Khutbah, because after hearing the Adhan, the Salah (prayer) does not start immediately. What starts after Adhan is Khutbah. That is why the Holy Qur'an did not say, 'When there is a call for prayer, rush for the prayer", rather it has said, "when there is a call for prayer, rush for the Dhikr of Allah. It is for this reason that all the Muslim schools of jurists are unanimous on the point that it is necessary upon every Muslim to set out for the Masjid as soon as he hears the call and should reach the Masjid at a time when the Khutbah is yet to start because hearing the full Khutbah is wajib (mandatory).

This is sufficient to prove that the Holy Qur'an has used the word 'Dhikr' for the Khutbah. Dhikr means 'recitation of the name of Allah' as against 'Tadhkir' which means 'giving advice', 'to educate' or 'to admonish'. This is a clear indication from the Holy Qur'an that the basic purpose of Khutbah is Dhikr and not the Tadhkir and that it is a part of the worship rather than being a normal lecture.

3. At another place, the Holy Qur'an has referred to the Khutbah of Friday as "the recitation of the Holy Qur'an". The Holy verse says:




"And when the Qur'an is recited before you, listen to it carefully and be silent, so that you receive mercy." (al-A'raaf: 204)

According to a large number of commentators the recitation of the Qur'an in this verse refers to the Khutbah delivered before the prayer of Jumu`ah. Here again the word of recitation is used for the Khutbah which indicates that it is very similar to the recitation of Qur'anic verses during performing prayers.

In a number of authentic Ahadith also, the Khutbah of Friday has been referred to as Dhikr. For example in a Hadith reported by Imam al-Bukhari the Holy Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم , while persuading Muslims to go to the Masjid on Friday at the earliest, has said:

"Because when the Imam comes out (to deliver Khutbah) the angels come to listen to the Dhikr." (Sahih al-Bukhari v. 1, p. 121)

In another narration, the same principle has been established in the following words:

"Because when imam comes out (for Khutbah) the angels close their books (recording the noble deeds) and listen to the Dhikr (i.e. Khutbah)." (Sahih al-Bukhari V.1, p. 127)

Based on this particular characteristic of the Khutbah of Friday it is admittedly subject to certain rules which are not applicable to normal religious lectures. Some of these rules are the following:

(i) It is a mandatory requirement for a valid Khutbah on Friday to contain at least one verse from, the Holy Qur'an without which the Khutbah is not valid, while in normal lectures no recitation from the Holy Qur'an is necessary.

(ii) Another mandatory rule is that it must contain some words in praise of Allah Almighty and for sending Salah (durood) to the Holy Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم while no such requirement is mandatory in the case of normal lectures.

(iii) The Khutbah being a part of the prayer no one from the audience is allowed to utter a single word during Khutbah. The Holy Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم has emphasized on this principle in the following words:

"If you speak during Khutbah on Friday, you commit absurdity."

"Whoever says to his friend while Imam is delivering Khutbah on Friday 'keep quiet' commits absurdity."

It is obvious that the words 'keep quiet' do not disturb the Khutbah, nor do they stop one from hearing its contents. Rather, they may induce others to maintain silence. Still, the Holy Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم has forbidden to utter these words during the Khutbah of Friday. The reason is that the Khutbah of Friday enjoys the same status as the Salah itself. While offering Salah, one cannot even say, 'keep quiet' to stop someone from speaking. Similar rule has been applied to Khutbah also, which is another indication that the Khutbah of Friday is not like a normal lecture. It is a part of Salah, therefore, most of the rules applicable to Salah are also applicable to it.

4. The Khutbah has been held as a prerequisite for the Friday prayer. No Friday prayer is valid without a Khutbah. All the Muslim jurists are unanimous on this point. Had it beers a normal lecture for the purpose of preaching, it would have nothing to do with the validity of the Jumu`ah prayer.

5. It is admitted by all that the Khutbah must be delivered after the commencement of the prescribed time of Jumu'ah prayer. If the Khutbah is delivered before the .prescribed time it is not valid, even if the prayer is offered within the prescribed time. In this case, both the Khutbah and the prayer will have to be I repeated. (al-Bahr al-Ra'iq v. 2 p. 158)

If the purpose of the Khutbah is nothing but preaching or education, it should have been acceptable Jumu'ah prayer and the prayer is offered after the commencement of the prescribed time. This strictness about the time of the Khutbah further confirms that it is a part of the Salah and is subject to the similar rules as rules provided for Salah..

6. If the Imam confines himself to the hamd (praising Allah) and Salah (Durood) for the Holy Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم and to reciting some verses from the Holy Qur'an, and making some Du'a (supplication) and does not utter a single word to preach or to educate people, the Khutbah is held to be valid and the Salah of Jumu`ah can be offered after that. Had the purpose been to educate people, it would have been the main ingredient of the Khutbah to say at least a few words for this purpose without which it should not have been a valid Khutbah. But it has been held valid even without the words of preaching or educating. Sayyidna Uthman رضى الله عنه delivered his first Khutbah (after he assumed the charge of Khilafat) exactly in this fashion and did not say a single word for the purpose of preaching. Still his Khutbah was held as valid. It was in the presence of the Sahabah رضى الله عنهم but no one from them challenged the validity of such a Khutbah.

This is again a clear proof of the fact that the basic purpose of the Khutbah is Dhikr and not Tadhkir. Being a part of the Jumu'ah prayer, it is a form of worship and not basically a method of preaching and education.

All these points go a long way to prove that, unlike normal lectures or sermons, certain rules peculiar to Salah have been prescribed for the Khutbah of Jumu'ah. It is in this context that it has been held necessary that it should be delivered in Arabic only. Just as Salah cannot be performed in any language other than Arabic the Khutbah of Jumu'ah too, cannot be delivered in any other language. That is why the Holy Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم never tried to direct his companions to deliver the Khutbah in the local language where the audience could not understand Arabic. Even the audience of the Holy Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم sometimes included non-Arabs, but' he never tried to get his Khutbah translated by an interpreter like he did while he spoke to foreign delegations.

After the demise of the Holy Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم the noble companions conquered a vast area of the globe. Even in the days of Sayyidna Umar رضى الله عنه the whole Persia and a major part of the Roman Empire was brought under the Muslim rule, and thousands of non-Arab people embraced Islam, so much so that. the majority of the Muslims living in Iraq, Iran, Syria, and Egypt were non-Arabs. These new converts were in desperate need of being educated in their own language, so that they may acquire proper knowledge of the basic Islamic rules and principles. It was not the age of printing, publishing and modern audio-visual instruments, therefore, the only source of acquiring knowledge was the personal contact. Still, the companions of the Holy Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم never thought about delivering the Friday Khutbah in the local languages, nor did they ever arrange for an interpreter to get it translated simultaneously.

One cannot argue that the Sahabah could not speak the local languages, because a large number of them, was either non-Arab by origin, like Salman al-Farisi, Suhayb al-Rumi, Bilal al-Habashi رضى الله عنهم اجمعين or has, learnt the local languages, like Zayd bin Harithahرضى الله عنه . It was universally accepted that, like the Salah and Adhan, the Khutbah of Friday must be delivered in Arabic, and it is not permissible to deliver it in any other language, even when the audience are not able to understand Arabic, because it is basically a form o Dhikr or worship, and not a source of education. If the audience understand Arabic, it can also serve a secondary purpose of educating them, but it is not the basic ingredient or the exclusive objective of Khutbah.


The Rulings of the recognized jurists


This position is unanimously held by all the four schools of the Islamic jurisprudence. Their specific rulings are reproduced below:

Maliki School


The Maliki scholars are very specific in declaring this rule. Al-Dasuqi, the well-known Maliki jurist, writes:

"And it is a condition for the validity of Jumu'ah that the Khutbah is delivered in Arabic, even though the people are non-Arabs and do not know the Arabic language. Therefore, if there is nobody who can deliver Khutbah in Arabic properly, the prayer of Jumu'ah is not obligatory on them (in which case they will offer the zuhr prayer)".

In Minah-al Jalil, another recognized book of Maliki jurisprudence, the principle has been mentioned in a greater detail:

"And two Khutbahs are necessary before Salah, and it is a condition that both of them are in Arabic, and are delivered aloud, even though the audience are non-Arabs or are dumb. If no one is found who can deliver them in Arabic then the Jumu`ah prayer is not obligatory on such people. Similarly, if all of them are deaf, no Jumu'ah is obligatory on them.

Al-Hattab رحمه الله, the most quoted Maliki jurist, writes in this Jawahir-al-iklil:

"So, if the Imam delivered the Khutbah after Salah, it is, necessary that he performs Salah again immediately after the Khutbah, otherwise (if considerable time has passed after the Khutbah, both Khutbah and Salah should be performed again, because it is a condition for the validity of Jumu'ah prayer that both the Khutbahs are followed immediately by Salah, and that both of them are delivered in Arabic, even though the people are non-Arabs who do not understand Arabic".

Al-Adawi, another Maliki jurist, mentions the principle in the following words:

"It is necessary that the Khutbah is in Arabic. Therefore, the Khutbah delivered in any other language is void. If no one from the people knows 'Arabic, and the Imam knows it, the Ummah is obligatory but if the Imam does not know Arabic, the obligation of Jumu'ah prayer is no more effective".

The same principle has been established by all the recognized books of Maliki jurisprudence.


Shaafi'ee School


Similar principle has been accepted by the Shafi'ee jurists also. Al-Ramli رحمه الله is one of the famous Shafii jurists of the later days who has been relied upon by the Muftis of Shafii school. He writes:

"And it is a condition (for the validity of Khutbah) that it is delivered in Arabic. This is to follow the way of the Sahabah and their decendants. And to learn Arabic (for the purpose of delivering Khutbah) is Fard al-Kifayah, therefore, it is sufficient that at least one man learns it... But if no one learns it, all of them will be sinful and their Jumu'ah prayer will not be acceptable. Instead, they will have to perform zuhr prayer. However, if it is not at all possible (due t o short time) that the Arabic is learnt, then it is permissible that the Imam delivers Khutbah in his own language, even though the people do not understand it... If somebody raises the question as to what purpose can be served by the Khutbah when it is not understood by the people, our answer would be that the purpose is served when the people merely know that the Khutbah is being delivered, because it is expressedly mentioned that if the audience listen to the Khutbah and do not understand its meaning, it is still a valid Khutbah."

The same rulings are given in other recognized books of Shafii school also.


Hanbali School


The Hambali school is no different from the main stream of the Muslim scholars. They too are of the belief that the Khutbah must be delivered in Arabic. However, they say that if nobody is found who can deliver it in Arabic, then in that case only the Khutbah may be delivered in some other language. But so far as there is a single person who can speak Arabic, it is necessary that he delivers it in Arabic, even though the audience do not understand its meanings. Al-Buhooti رحمه الله, the renowned jurist of the Hanbali School, writes:

"And the Khutbah is not valid if it is delivered in any language other than Arabic when somebody is able to deliver it in Arabic. It is like the recitation of the Holy Qur'an (in prayer) which cannot be done in a non-Arab language. However, the Khutbah in any other language is valid only if nobody can deliver it in Arabic. Nevertheless, the recitation of the Holy Qur'an (as a part of the Khutbah) is not valid except in Arabic. If somebody cannot recite in Arabic, it is obligatory on him to recite a Dhikr instead of a verse of the Holy Qur'an, like in Salah (the person who cannot recite the Qur'anic verses is required to make Dhikr)."

The same rules are also mentioned in other books of the Hambali school.
(See for example: 2:113 كتاب الفروع لابن مفلح )


Hanafi School


The Hanafi school of Islamic jurisprudence also agrees with the former three schools in the principle that the Friday Khutbah should be delivered in Arabic and it is not permissible to deliver it in any other language. However, there is a slight difference of opinion about some details of this principle. Imam Abu Yousuf رحمه الله and Imam Muhammad رحمه الله, the two pupils of Imam Abu Hanifah رحمه الله are of the view that a non-Arabic Khutbah is not acceptable in the sense that it cannot fulfill the requirement of Jumu'ah prayer, therefore, no Jumu`ah prayer can be offered after it. Rather, the Khutbah must be delivered again in Arabic without which the following Jumu'ah prayer will not be valid.

However, if no one from the community is able to deliver an Arabic Khutbah, then only in that case a non-Arabic Khutbah may fulfill the requirement based on the doctrine of necessity. The view of Imam Abu Yousuf رحمه الله and Imam Muhammad رحمه الله, in this respect, is close to the views of Imam Shafi'ee رحمه الله and Imam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal رحمه الله.

Imam Abu Hanifah رحمه الله, on the other hand, says that although it is Makrooh (impermissible) to deliver Khutbah in a non-Arab language yet if someone violates this principle and delivers it in any other language, then the requirement of Khutbah will be held as fulfilled and the Jumu`ah prayer offered after it will be valid.

Some people misunderstood the position of Imam Abu Hanifah in this matter from two different angels:

Firstly, some writers claim that this view represents the earlier position of Imam Abu Hanifah رحمه الله and he had, later on, withdrawn from it and had concurred to the view of his two pupils.

This statement is not correct. In fact, there are two separate issues which should not be confused. One issue is whether or not the recitation of the Holy Qur'an in a non-Arabic language is acceptable. It is with regard to this issue that Imam Abu Hanifah had an earlier view which accepted the recitation even in a non-Arab language, but later on, he recalled this view and concurred with the view of his two pupils and all other jurists who do not hold any recitation of Qur'an during Salah as valid unless it is in the original Arabic language. It is now settled with consensus and Imam Abu Hanifah does no longer differ from this unanimous position of the Muslim jurists.

The second issue relates to the Khutbah of Friday and to some other Adhkar of Salah like الله اكبر etc. This issue is still a matter of difference between Imam Abu Hanifah رحمه الله and other jurists including Imam Abu Yousuf رحمه الله and Imam Muhammad رحمه الله who are of the view that the Khutbah in a non-Arabic language is not at all acceptable, and no Jumu'ah prayer is valid after such a Khutbah, while Imam Abu Hanifah رحمه الله says that, despite being Makrooh, a non-Arabic Khutbah is recognized to the extent that it validates the Jumu`ah prayer performed after it. This view of Imam Abu Hanifah رحمه الله still holds good and he did never resile from it. (راجع رد المحتار)

The second misconception with regard to the position of Imam Abu Hanifah رحمه الله in the issue of Khutbah is that some people have misinterpreted his view to say that a non-Arabic Khutbah is quite permissible according to Imam Abu Hanifah.

This is again a wrong statement. Imam Abu Hanifah رحمه الله does not hold it quite permissible to deliver Khutbah in a non-Arabic language. He holds it "Makrooh Tahreeman", a term almost analogous to 'impermissible', which means that it is not allowed to deliver Khutbah in a language other than Arabic. However, if somebody commits this Makrooh (impermissible) act, his Khutbah will not be deemed as void, and the Jumu'ah prayer performed after it will be valid.

To properly understand his position, one must recall that the Khutbah is a condition precedent to the validity of Jumu`ah prayer. Without Khutbah, Jumu`ah prayer is void. Now most of the jurists, including Imam Abu Yousuf رحمه الله and Imam Muhammad رحمه الله are of the opinion that a non-Arabic Khutbah is not acceptable at all. If somebody delivers it in a non-Arabic language it can never be held as a Khutbah of Friday, therefore, it will not fulfill the condition of Jumu'ah prayer and no Jumu'ah prayer can be performed after it unless an Arabic Khutbah is delivered again.

Imam Abu Hanifah رحمه الله differs from them in this aspect only. He says that admittedly, a non-Arabic Khutbah is Makrooh or impermissible, yet the non-Arabic language does not render it as void. Therefore, it can be used for fulfilling the condition of the Jumu'ah prayer. Therefore, the people who attend such a Khutbah can participate in the Jumu'ah prayer and the obligation of Jumu'ah will be held as discharged.

It is thus evident that all the four recognized schools of Islamic Fiqh are unanimous on the point that the Khutbah must be delivered in Arabic. The Maliki jurists have gone to the extent that if no Arabic-knowing person is available for delivering Khutbah, the Jumu'ah is converted into Zuhr prayer. The Shafii jurists say that in this case the Muslims are under an obligation to appoint someone to learn as much Arabic words as may be sufficient to articulate a shortest possible Khutbah. However, if the time is too short to learn, then the Khutbah may be delivered in any other possible language. Similar is the view of the Hanbali jurists who insist that in this case the Imam may confine himself to the short words of Dhikr like سبحان الله or الحمدلله.
(1:146 الفتاوى الهندية)

This being allowed, he need not resort to delivering Khutbah in any other language.

This analysis would show that the exceptions conceded by the Shafi'ee or Hanbali schools relate to the rare situation where nobody is able to utter a few words in Arabic. This situation is similar to a situation where a person embraces Islam and does not find time to learn the basic ingredients of Salah in which case he is allowed to utter a few words of Dhikr in whatever manner he can. Obviously, the rule governing this rare phenomenon cannot be applied to the normal situations where Khutbah can be delivered in Arabic.

It must be noted here that all those who have allowed some exceptions to the general rule have done so only when a capable person to deliver Arabic Khutbah is not available. But no jurist has ever allowed such a concession to a situation where such a capable person is available but the audience do not understand Arabic. Conversely, each one of them has clearly mentioned that the rule will remain effective even when the audience do not understand the meaning of Khutbah.

It should be remembered that all these juristic rulings were given at a time when Islam had spread all over the world, and the Muslim community was not confined to the Arabian Peninsula; rather Millions of the Muslims belonged to non-Arab countries who did not know Arabic. In the beginning of the Islamic history even Syria, Iraq, Egypt and other Northern countries of Africa were non-Arabs. Their residents did not know Arabic. Moreover, Iran, India, Turkey, China and all the Eastern Muslim countries are still non-Arabs and very few of their residents know Arabic. The need for their Islamic education was too obvious to be doubted. Khutbah to use it as a source of education. Evidently, the jurists quoted above were not unaware of the need to educate the common people, nor were they heedless to the basic requirements of the community. Still, their consistent practice throughout centuries was that the Khutbah of Jumu'ah was always delivered in Arabic. No one from the non-Arab audience has ever raised objection against it, nor did the leaders of the Muslim -thought ever try to change its language. They knew that there are many other occasions to deliver lectures in the local language to educate people, but the Khutbah of Friday, like Salah, has some peculiar characteristics, which should not be disturbed.

In order to benefit from the congregation of Friday and to use this occasion for educating common people, the non-Arab Muslim communities started a lecture in the local language before the second Adhan or after the Jumu'ah prayer. For centuries the Muslims in India, Pakistan, China and the countries of Central Asia arrange for a general lecture in the local language before the second Adhan of Jumu'ah. But after the second Adhan the Arabic Khutbah is delivered followed by the Jumu'ah prayer. In some places, the lecture in the local language is arranged after the Jumu`ah prayer is over. Through this practice, the non-Arab Muslims have on the one hand, preserved the distinct characteristics of the Khutbah and maintained the consistent practice of the Ummah and on the other hand, they have availed of this opportunity for educating the common people also.

Some people raise two objections against this practice. First, with regard to its acceptability from the Shari'ah point of view, and second, with reference to its practical aspect. The first objection is that the lecture in the local language is an addition to the recognized components of the Jumu'ah congregation. It is tantamount to raising the number of Khutbah from two to three. According to them, this kind of addition should be regarded as 'bidah' (an innovation) because it has no precedent in the practice of the Holy Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم or his noble companions. This objection, however, is not valid for two reasons:

Firstly, it is not correct to term every new practice as 'bidah'. In fact, a new practice becomes 'bidah' only when it is taken to be a part of the ritual practices, or is held to be wajib (obligatory) or masnoon (a practice prescribed by the Holy
Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم. If a new practice is adopted simply for the sake of convenience arid neither it is held as obligatory, nor masnoon, and nobody is compelled to follow it, nor a person is blamed for avoiding it, rather it is taken to be mubah (permissible), then such a practice cannot be held as 'bidah'. For example building of minarets or domes over the mosque is a new practice which did not exist in the days of the Holy Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم , but it has never been termed as 'bidah' for the simple reason that this practice is not taken to be wajib or masnoon. Nobody has ever thought that it is necessary for a mosque to have minarets and domes, or that a mosque without domes and minarets is not a Masjid. This practice has been adopted for the sake of convenience only, therefore, it is not a bidah or a prohibited innovation in religion. Similarly, a lecture before the second Adhan of Jumu'ah, in whatever language it may be, is not a bidah, because nobody deems it a part of the Jumu`ah prayer, nor is it held to be wajib or masnoon. It has been adopted for the sake of convenience and no one is compelled to deliver it, nor to attend it. If no such lecture is delivered, nobody believes that the Jumu`ah congregation is deficient or incomplete. Therefore, this additional lecture cannot be held as bidah, even though it is presumed that it is a new practice adopted by the Muslims of later days.

Secondly, it is not correct to assume that this additional lecture has no precedent in the earlier days of the Islamic history. In fact, it is reported by several authentic sources that Sayyidna Umar رضى الله عنه had permitted Sayyidna Tamim al-Dari رضى الله عنه to give a lecture sermon in the masjid before Sayyidna Umar رضى الله عنه comes out to deliver the Khutbah of Friday. This practice of Sayyidna Umar رضى الله عنه reveals two points; firstly, that such an additional lecture is permissible, anal secondly that this additional lecture is meant exclusively to educate people, while the formal Friday Khutbah has other elements, otherwise it was needless to have an additional lecture for education while both were in Arabic.

The second objection against this practice is that it is not feasible, specially in the countries where Friday is not observed as a weekly holiday. In such countries the people come to attend the Jumu`ah prayer from their working places and have to go back to their work in a shortest possible time. Therefore, it is difficult for them to attend an additional lecture before the Khutbah.

But this difficulty can easily be resolved by shortening the Arabic Khutbah and by using the time so saved for the lecture in the local language. I have seen that almost in every mosque in India, Pakistan, China, South Africa and in a large number of the mosques in UK, USA and Canada, both the Khutbah and a preceding lecture are easily combined within the time officially allowed for the Jumu'ah prayer and it has created no difficulty at all. The only requirement for this practice is that the speaker of the additional lecture remains to-the-point, which is advisable otherwise also.

It is sometimes argued that even if the Khutbah is delivered in a local language, it is always started by some Arabic words containing Hamd (praise to Allah Subhanahu) and Salah (prayer for Allah's blessing) for the Holy Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم and at least one verse from the Holy Qur'an. This much is enough for fulfilling the necessary requirements of a valid Arabic Khutbah. After this necessary requirements, the rest of the Khutbah may be delivered in any language.

But this argument overlooks the point that it is a Sunnah that the Arabic Khutbah is followed by the Jumu'ah prayer immediately without considerable gap between the two. Therefore, this practice, too, is not in harmony with the masnoon way of delivering a Khutbah.

Our brothers who insist that the Friday Khutbah must be delivered in a local language are requested to consider the following points in the light of the foregoing discussion:

1. The consistent practice of the Ummah throughout centuries has been to deliver the Friday Khutbah in Arabic even in the non-Arab countries. Why should the contemporary Muslims deviate from the consistent practice?

2. Khutbah is a part of the Jumu`ah prayer, hence a mode of worship. The modes of worship are not open to our rational opinion. They have certain prescribed forms which must permanent act and should never be changed through our rational arguments. Once this door is opened in one form of worship, there is no reason why other forms are not subjected to similar changes. The argument in favor of an Urdu or English Khutbah may open the door for an Urdu or English Adhan and Salah also on the same analogy. The ways of worship are meant for creating a sense of obedience and submission. A Muslim is supposed to perform these acts as an obedient slave of Allah, without questioning the rationality of these acts, otherwise throwing stones on the Jamarat of Mina or rushing across Safa and Marwah are all apparently irrational acts; but, being the slaves of Allah, we have to perform these acts as modes of worship. This is exactly what the word 'Ibadah' means. Any alteration in these ways on the basis of one's opinion is contrary to the very sense and philosophy of 'Ibadah' or worship.

3. All the recognized schools of Islamic jurisprudence are unanimous on the point that delivering Friday Khutbah in Arabic is obligatory. Most of the jurists have gone to the extent that in case the Khutbah is delivered in any other language, no Jumu`ah prayer offered after it is valid. Some others (like Imam Abu Hanifah) hold the non-Arabic Khutbah as valid in the sense that the Jumu'ah, prayers offered after it is- not void, yet at the same time they hold this practice to be impermissible, which means that the impermissibility of a non-Arabic Khutbah is a point of consensus between all the recognized schools of Islamic Fiqh.

A deviation from such a consensus can hardly render a service to the Muslim community except to create differences and disputes between them. It may be seen that practically, this deviation has divided Muslims and their mosques into two groups. Even if it is accepted for the sake of argument that the non-Arabic Khutbah is permissible, it is at the most permissible and not obligatory, and if a permissible act may cause disunity among the Muslims, the greater interest of the Muslim Ummah requires that it should be abandoned. The Holy Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم , dropped the idea of rebuilding the kabah on Abrahamic foundation merely because it might have created disputes, even though the proposed construction of the kabah was not only permissible, but also advisable. If such a pious act may be avoided for the sake of unity, the newly invented custom of delivering Khutbah in a non-Arabic language deserves all the more to be avoided for maintaining unity.

4. Those who believe that the Khutbah may be delivered in a non-Arabic language do not believe that the Arabic Khutbah is not permissible, while the followers of the four recognized schools of Islamic Fiqh believe that a non-Arabic Khutbah is not permissible. It means that an Arabic Khutbah is permissible according to all, while a non-Arabic Khutbah is not permissible . according to the majority of the Muslims in the world. Obviously, in such a situation, the preferable practice would be the one which is permissible according to all the Muslims, so that every individual may be satisfied that he is performing the required worship in a permissible manner.

Instead of making it a matter of prestige we should mould our ways in accordance with the interest of the Ummah as a whole. May Allah grant us Taufiq to act according to His pleasure.


http://www.central-mosque.com/fiqh/khutar.htm
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#24 [Permalink] Posted on 29th June 2012 13:08
Conditions That Obligate The Friday Prayer


The Friday prayer is individually obligatory upon one who satisfies seven conditions. It is established in the Qur'an, Sunna, and Consensus of the scholars (ijmaa'). The one who rejects it is a non-believer. The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said, "Bear in mind that Allaah has made compulsory for you the Friday prayer at this place of mine, on this day of mine and during this month of mine and in this year of mine, until the Day of Resurrection. He who abandons it during my lifetime or after, while he has a just or tyrant ruler, making little of it (the prayer) or denying it, Allaah will not unite his gathering, nor will He bless his affairs. Be aware that his prayer will not be valid nor will his zakat or hajj; nor will his fasting nor his virtues be accepted as long as he does not repent. So he who repents, Allaah will restore for him His grace (and forgive him).' [Ibn Majah 1081]

Conditions That Render The Frida Prayer Obligatory


1- One must be male (therefore excluding females) and 2- Freedom (therefore excludes slaves).

3- One is to be a resident in a city or in a place where one is regarded as a resident of the city, such as living in the courtyard that is adjacent to the city. This is the correct view. This is the place that if one crossed with the intention of travel, he would be deemed a traveller; and if one reached this point after returning from travelling, he would be deemed a resident. Therefore, if one is a resident pf a small town outside the city, Friday prayer is not compulsory on him. The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said, "There is no Friday (prayer), nor the prayer of Eid al-Fitr or Eid al-Adha except in a city or large town." [al-Baihaqi 3/ 179, Sunan al-Kubrah]

The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم also said, "The right of the Friday prayer is upon all Muslims except four: the possessed, the female, a boy and the sick." And in another place in al-Bayhaqi, it states, "And with the exception of the boy, the possessed and the traveller." [al-Baihaqi 3/183, Sunan al-Kubrah]

Hence, a person living in a small village outside the city is not obligated to attend the Friday prayer, but the person living within the city or a place where he is regarded as being a resident of the city, is duty bound to attend. [Maraky al-Falah 296]

4- To be of sound health, and free from illness. The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said, "The Friday prayer in congregation is a necessary duty on every Muslim, with four exceptions; a slave, a woman, a boy and a sick person." [Abu Dawud 1062]

Friday prayer is not obligatory on the traveller, though if he hears the call, it preferred that he attend.

5- Safety from an oppressor is the fifth condition. The Friday assembly prayer is not necessary upon one who fears an oppressor.

6- One's eyes must be sound, i.e. to possess the ability of reliable sight. Friday prayer is not obligatory upon a blind person, according to Imam Abu Hanifa رحمه الله. Though this is contrary to Imam Muhammad رحمه الله and Imam Abu Yusuf رحمه الله who said, "If he can find someone to take him, then he is required to attend." [Maraky al-Falah 296]

7- Soundness of one's legs, i.e. one must have the ability to walk. Friday prayer is not compulsory on one who is crippled and this is agreed upon in the madhhab. [Maraky al-Falah 296]


Conditions That Validate The Friday Prayer


There are six conditions that validate Friday prayer.

1- It is to take place in the city or in its courtyard, such as an area used for the benefit of the people like a park. The performance of the Friday prayer is val id in many places within the city.

2- It is conditional that the prayer be conducted by the Sultan as Imam, or his deputy.

3- It must take place at the time Of Dhuhr. Anas Ibn Malik رضي الله عنه said: The Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم used to offer the Friday prayer when the sun declined. [Abu Dawud 1079]

According to Imam Abu Hanifa رحمه الله, Imam Malik رحمه الله and Imam Shafi'i رحمه الله, the time for Friday prayer is after the sun passes the meridian. It is not lawful before it. It is not valid before the entry of the Dhuhr time and neither after the Dhuhr time ends, which means if one is praying the Friday prayer and the 'asr time enters, the prayer is nullified.

4- The sermon must be before the Friday prayer for the purpose of the Friday
prayer
, [this means that the imam must deliver a sermon which is intended I'or the Friday assembly prayer. Therefore, if the Imam sneezes and utters the words "alHamdulillah" due to sneezing, it does not serve as a substitute for the sermon; because these words were not intended for the Friday prayer, rather, they were for sneezing; and for his reason, the objective of the sermon must be for the Friday prayer. [Maraky al-Falah 2] and the sermon is to be delivered in its time. If the imam gives the sermon before its time, it is not valid.

From those who are obliged to attend the Friday assembly prayer, there must be at least one person from amongst them who is able to hear the speech of the Imam, even if it is only one person, and this is the correct view. This is regardless if he is mute, asleep, or whether he is a slave, ill or a traveller, even if he is in major impurity and then after the speech performs the major bath, there must be at least one individual who has the ability to hear the speech.

5- General consent from the leader is conditional. Indeed, this is f rom the signs of Islam and something specific to the religion. If for example, an i mam closed the doors of his castle or the place in which he and his companions pray, then the Friday prayer! is not permitted. However, if he permits the people to enter, it is valid. [Maraky al-Falah 298]

6- There must be a group present. This is achieved with three men besides the Imam, even if the men are slaves, travellers or are all suffering from an illness. It is also a condition that they remain with the imam until he performs the first prostration, and if they leave the prayer after this, the imam is to complete the Friday prayer. Though if they leave the prayer before this (i.e. before the first prostration) the prayer is nullified. And even if only one person leaves before the first prostration and two remain, the prayer is nullified as held by Imam Abu Hanifa رحمه الله, whereas Imam Muhammad رحمه الله and Imam Abu Yusuf رحمه الله stated that the three men are required only for the opening Allaahu Akbar.

The Friday prayer is not valid with a female or boy included with two men; three men are required since women, and boys do not satisfy the conditions that obligate the Friday prayer. It is permitted for a slave, ill person or traveller to lead the Friday prayer as the imam, if he has permission from the leader.

A comprehensive city, according to Imam Abu Hanifa رحمه الله is a place that has a Mufti, Leader, and a Judge who implements the law and establishes the hudud (penalties). In addition the number of buildings must be equal to the number of buildings in Mina according to the most evident view. Imam Qadikhan رحمه الله held that this view has consensus.

In the event that the judge or leader is a mufti, then either one is sufficient for all three roles; i.e. the judge who is a mufti can assume the role of a judge, mufti and leader. This implies that having one of these persons in an area would render it as a city provided the buildings amounted to that of Mina.

The Friday prayer is permitted in Mina during the days of Hajjj provided it is conducted by the Khalifa or the Leader of the Hijaz area.


The Sermon And Its Sunan


If the Imam limits the Friday sermon to that of an invocation, such as one tasbih (Glory be to Allaah - Subhan Allaah) or one tahmid (All praise be to Allaah - al-Hamdulillaah) it is valid, though is disliked because the sunna has not been fulfilled.

Imam Muhammad رحمه الله and Imam Abu Yusuf رحمه الله said; that the sermon must be at least as long as a lengthy remembrance, long enough to be identified as a sermon [which is at least as long as the tashahhud.] [Maraky al-Falah 299]

Imam Shafi'i رحمه الله maintained that it is not permitted unless he delivers two sermons that conform to practice. He used as his basis, the words of Allaah [Hasten earnestly to the remembrance of Allaah]. [Quran, 62:69]


The Friday Sermon Consists Of Eighteen Sunan


1- To be in a state of purification when delivering the sermon is sunna. It is only deemed sunna and not obligatory because the sermon is not the prayer.

2- Clothing one's nakedness during the sermon.

3- To sit upon the pulpit before commencing the sermon.

4- It is sunna to call the adhan in front of the pulpit, just like the iqama is made in front of the pulpit after the sermon.

5- After the adhan, the imam stands to deliver the sermon leaning on a sword in his left hand, which is the method observed in all countries that were conquered by force. Though if the country was taken or occupied peacefully, then the imam does not adopt the sword. The wisdom of the sword is to show the people in what way the nation was overcome, and that if the people denounce their Islam, then that land remains in the hands of the Muslims, in which they may resume fighting. However, the Madina of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم was opened with the Qur'an, and as a result the sermon is given without the sword. [Maraky al-Falah 300]

8- It is sunna to declare the two testimonies of faith [shahadatayn].

9- This is followed by sending blessings upon our holy Prophet God bless him and give him peace!! which is sunna.

10/ 11. It is sunna to advise the people about abstaining from disobedience to Allaah or to frighten the people about the punishments of the hereafter, and remind them about their duties to Allaah and dealings with others etc...

12- To recite a verse from the Holy Qur'an is sunna. It is reported that the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم recited Quran in his sermon [and fear the Day when you shall be brought back to Allaah]. [al-Baqarah 281]

The majority of scholars hold that the Imam is to seek refuge with Allaah from Shaytan the rejected before recitation. However, he is not to say the tasmiyya [Bismillahir Rahmanir Raheem] unless he is going to recite the whole surah, in which case he is to say it as well. [Maraky al-Falah 300]

13- Conducting two sermons is sunna for the reason that it has been the occurrence from the Prophet's time until now صلى الله عليه وسلم.

14- It is sunna for the Imam to sit for a moment between the two sermons the extent of three verses of Quran.

15- To repeat the praises and glorifications of God including the blessings upon the Prophet at the beginning of the second sermon.

16- In the second sermon, it is sunna for the Imam to make supplications of forgiveness for the believing men and women.

17- It is sunna for the people to listen to the sermon. It is sufficient if one attempts to listen but is unable due to a long distance or another cause. Should one be unable to hear the sermon, it suffices though silence is required.

18- It is sunna to curtail the duration of the two sermons equivalent to the recitation of a surah fom the long part of the mufassal section which is any suraah from surah al-Hujurat to surah al-Buruj.

It is disliked to lengthen the sermons or to abandon one of its sunan.


When Is One Required To Attend The Friday Prayer


It is obligatory to proceed towards the Friday prayer in a tranquil state and leave buying and selling when the first adhan is called.

Note: the author used tha Arabic word sa'iy, which means to hasten in order to correspond with the words of Allaah, "When the call to prayer is proclaimed on Friday, hasten earnestly to the remembrance of Allaah and leave off business and trade." Though what ha intended, is to proceed to the Friday prayer walking in a tranquil state due tn words of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم who said, "If the prayer has been announced, do not come to it hastily, but rather come whilst you are walking tranquilly." [Bukhari 908, Muslim 1249]


Branches


When the Imam emerges usually from the room near the pulpit, in order to deliver the sermon, there is no more prayer and no talking until the Imam completes the Friday prayer. This is the saying of Imam Abu Hanifa رحمه الله as the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said, "Even saying to your companion 'listen' while the Imam is giving the sermon on Friday is to speak foolishly." [Muwatta of Imam Malik 6]

Though Imam Muhammad رحمه الله and Imam Abu Yusuf رحمه الله said, "There is no harm if one talks when the imam emerges provided one ceases before the Imam speaks." And if the imam orders the blessing upon the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم, then one may utter it silently. By doing so, one will attain two merits; one for listening to the sermon and the other for sending blessing upon the Prophet. Likewise, if one sneezes, he is to praise Allaah within himself. Indeed, the implemented and relied upon ruling in the Hanafi school is that speaking is prohibited (whether one is distant from the imam or close to him); for the reality is that the person distant from the Imam takes the same ruling as the one close to him. One is therefore to listen and remain silent. [Maraky al-Falah 302]

Eating, drinking, fidgetiag with an object or something similar as well as looking around is disliked for the one attending the Friday sermon. One should observe what he observes in prayer and refrain from what he refrains from in prayer.

When the imam emerges, one is not to return the greeting of salam or to reply to one who sneezes, because one cannot engage in something else other than the listening to the Imam and this applies when the Imam appears to conduct the Friday sermon. Imam Abu Hanifa رحمه الله disliked the response to a person who sneezes and the returning of salam to others when the imam emerges. [Maraky al-Falah 302]

The Imam is not to give salam to the people when he arrives at his point on the
pulpit
because if he does so, he will compel the people to that which is unlawful; namely speech. [Maraky al-Falah, 303]

It is disliked for someone who is obliged to pray the Friday prayer, to leave the city after hearing its call and not having prayed it.

If a person prays the Dhuhr prayer before the Friday prayer without an excuse, it is unlawful, though his Dhuhr prayer is considered to have been formed if he does so. Afterwards, if (he decides to attend the Friday congregation and) he moves towards it and finds the Imam performing it, then his Dhuhr is nullified even if he does not catch the Imam in the Friday prayer. The reason is that the mere making of an effort towards it renders his Dhuhr void. However, Imam Muhammad رحمه الله and Imam Abu Yusuf رحمه الله held that it is not nullified until he joins the prayer with the Imam.

It is disliked for those who are excused from the Friday prayer(such as a traveller or sick person) as well as prisoners, to perform the Dhuhr prayer in congregation in a city on Friday. It is also disliked for the one excused from the Friday prayer to offer the Dhuhr prayer alone in the city prior to the people performing the Friday prayer. It is recommended for the excused persons to delay the Dhuhr prayer until after the Friday prayer has concluded and to offer the Dhuhr prayer alone. [Nur al-Idah 166]

The basis for this is the following. i) city locations on Friday are designated for the Friday assembly prayer. According to the Hanafi school, the Friday prayer is to be observed in a comprehensive city and not in small villages outside the city. This being the case, it is not disliked for residents of small villages outside the city to call the adhan for the Dhuhr and perform it in a group, because for them - it is the oblgation of that time, ii) if those regarded as excused from the Friday prayer offer the dhuhr prayer as a group, it will interfere with the Friday assembly prayer and cause confusion amongst others who may believe it to be the Friday prayer. [Maraky al-Falah 303]

lf a person joins the Friday assembly prayer when the Imam is in the final tashahhud, or making the prostrations of forgetfulness, then he is to complete the remainder of his prayer as the Friday assembly prayer according to Imam Abu Hanifa رحمه الله and Imam Abu Yusuf رحمه الله. The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said, "Make up what you have missed." [Ahmad 2/ 238]

Imam Muhammad رحمه الله, Imam Malik رحمه الله and Imam Shafi'i رحمه الله held, that if a person fails to join the congregation in the second rak'ah of the Friday prayer before the Imam raises his head from bowing, then the person must continue the prayer as the Dhuhr prayer, which is four rak'ahs, not two. However, the fatwa is with Abu Imam Hanifa رحمه الل. And Allah سبحانه و تعالى knows best.


[Nur al-Idah, Arabic-English, pp 258-266]
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#25 [Permalink] Posted on 21st September 2012 11:23
Brief Rulings for the Friday Khutbah


By Mufti Muhammad Shafi' al-'Uthmani رحمه الله


[The following article offers the rulings for the jumu'ah khutbah according to the rulings of a great Hanafi jurist. Being a brief piece, it does not tackle the detailed analysis of evidences nor numerous possible scenarios that can occur during a Friday sermon. It is a translation of an article written in 1350H by Mawlana Mufti Muhammad Shafi', Allah have mercy on him. It appeared in his Khutabat al-Ahkam li Jumu'at al-'Am by Mawlana Ashraf 'Ali al-Thanwi, Allah have mercy on him. Madinah Publishing Co., Karachi 1382H.]

The jumu'ah khutbah is a condition (shart) for the prayer. The jumu'ah prayer is therefore not complete without the khutbah. Further, the condition can only be fulfilled by the performance of dhikr Allah (the remembrance of Allah).

It is therefore sunnah for the khutbah of jumu'ah and the two 'ids (the two 'eids) to be delivered in Arabic. Conversely, to perform the khutbah in another language is considered an innovation. (Sharh Muwatta of Shah Wali Allah, Kitab al-Adhkar of Nawawi, Durr al-Mukhtar, Shurut al-Salat, Sharh al-Ihya')

Similarly, performing the khutbah in Arabic and then giving its translation in another language before the prayer is also considered an innovation and should be avoided. Of course, there is no harm in providing the translation after the prayer. Rather, this method is preferable. There is also no harm if the translation is given after the khutbahs of the two 'ids, and it is even better to step away from the minbar and provide the translation in order that a clear distinction be made. (See Taqrid al-Risalah based on the hadith of Sahih Muslim)

It is sunnah to remain in a state of wudu' while delivering the khutbah. Not having wudu' while delivering the khutbah is disliked (makruh). It is also sunnah to stand up while giving the khutbah and therefore to sit while delivering it is makruh. (al-Fatawa al-Hindiyyah, Bahr al-Ra'iq)

It is sunnah to face the people while delivering the khutbah. Facing the qiblah or any other direction while delivering it is makruh. (al-Fatawa al-Hindiyyah, Bahr al-Ra'iq) It is also a sunnah to recite "a'udhu billahi min al-shaytan al-rajim" softly before starting the khutbah . (As stated by Imam Abu Yusuf. See Bahr al-Ra'iq) Delivering the khutbah in a loud voice so that the people can hear it is sunnah. Delivering it softly (so that not all can hear) is makruh. (al-Fatawa al-Hindiyyah )

It is sunnah to give a moderately short khutbah and not overly extend it. The limit that it should be kept to is the same time as it would take to read one of the tiwal mufassal surahs (any surah between al-Hujurat and al-Buruj). Extending it any longer is makruh. (Radd al-Muhtar, al-Fatawa al-Hindiyyah, Bahr al-Ra'iq)

It is additionally sunnah that ten things be observed during the khutbah:

1. To start with hamd (praise of Allah)

2. To glorify Allah (thana')

3. To recite the shahadatayn

4. To send blessings and salutations (salat wa salam) on the Prophet (upon him blessings and peace)

5. To give some words of guidance and advice;

6. To read some verse of the Quran

7. To sit for a little while in between the two khutbahs

8. To offer du'a (supplication) for all Muslims, men and women

9. To say "al-hamd li Allah" during the second khutbah as well as thana' and salat wa salam

10. To make both khutbahs no longer than the time it takes to read a surah of the tiwal mufassal. (al-Fatawa al-Hindiyyah, Bahr al-Ra'iq)


http://www.ilmgate.org/brief-rulings-for-the-friday-khutbah/
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#26 [Permalink] Posted on 28th September 2012 11:00
Can We pray Jumu'ah Before Its Beginning Time?

Mufti Abdur Rahman Ibn Yusuf


Halalified YT Audio

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#27 [Permalink] Posted on 22nd October 2012 16:48
Is the Friday Prayer Obligatory After the `Id Prayer if `Id Should Fall on a Friday?


By Imam Ibn Rushd al-Hafid رحمه الله

Translated by Hamzah wald Maqbul


(From the Bidayat al-Mujtahid of Ibn Rushd al-Hafid, An Authoritative Manual on the Fiqh of the Four Madhhabs and the People of the Sunnah)

[The people of knowledge] have differed about [what to do] when the `Id and the Friday fall on the same day: would the `Id [prayer] suffice [one who prayed it] in place of the Friday prayer? A group [of the people of knowledge] said: "The `Id [prayer] suffices [one who prayed it] in place of the Friday [prayer], and such a person is not obligated to pray [after the `Id prayer, anything] except `Asr." This is the opinion of `Ata', and it has been attributed to Ibn Zubayr and `Ali [may Allah be well pleased with them].

[Another] group said, "This is a dispensation meant for Bedouin nomads who come especially to a metropolis only for `Id and the Friday prayer." This is in accord with what has been attributed to Sayyiduna `Uthman, [may Allah be well pleased with him,] that he gave the khutbah of `Id on a Friday, then said, "Whoever wishes of the people of `Aliyah[1] to await the Friday prayer, let him wait; whoever wishes to return, let him return."

[This] was narrated by Malik in the Muwatta', and similar has been attributed to `Umar bin `Abd al-`Aziz, and Shafi`i has chosen it [as his fatwa, may Allah have mercy upon them all][2].

Malik رحمه الله and Abu Hanifah رحمه الله said, when `Id and Friday coincide, a legally responsible person is expected to perform both: `Id because it is a sunnah[3], and the Friday prayer, because it is obligatory. [They maintain that] neither one takes the place of the other; this is the default assumption that is to be taken, unless there is some [explicit] legislation to the contrary which [is so strong that one] is obliged to change [one's opinion] to it.[4]

Those who take the opinion of [Sayyiduna] `Uthman [do so] because it is a matter that one cannot deduce by mere opinion; rather [according to them], it can be nothing other than [a fatwa] in accordance [to the sunnah]. [Also] it is not totally outside the bounds of the default state [of the shari`ah, as it still has most people obliged to pray the Friday prayer].

As for dropping the obligatory dhuhr and Friday prayers, which would be dropped in the place of the `Id prayer, this would be very much against the default state [of the rulings of the shari`ah and has no weight] unless there is some explicit legislation to the contrary, which [is so strong that one] is obliged to follow it.[5]*

[The scholars of this opinion further] differed about one who missed the `Id prayer with the Imam. A group said that he should pray four [raka`at]. This is the opinion of [Imams] Ahmad and [Sufyan] al-Thawri. It is also attributed to ibn Mas`ud, [may Allah be pleased with them all].

A group of them said that [such a person] should make up [the `Id prayer], praying it like the `Id prayer is prayed: two raka`at in which one makes the takbirs just as one would do so in the `Id prayer, and one recites out loud just as one would do so in it. This is the opinion of Shafi`i, [may Allah have mercy on him], and Abu Thawr رحمه الله.

[Another] group of them said that he should just pray two [normal] raka`at, in which he neither recites out loud, nor makes any of the [extra] takbirs of the `Id prayer.

[Yet another] group of them said that if the Imam has prayed in the same place [that the one who missed the prayer is praying], then he should pray two raka`at; if he is praying in a place other than the musalla [of the Imam], then he makes up four raka`at.

[And yet another] group of them said that he is basically neither obliged to [nor is he able to] make up [the `Id] prayer. This is the fatwa of Malik and his companions. [The great Shafi`i Hafidh[6] of Hadith] Ibn al-Mundhir relates a similar opinion from Shafi`i [may Allah have mercy on them all].

As for those who said that [he must make up] four [raka`at], he has made it [i.e. the `Id prayer] the equivalent to the Friday prayer. This is a weak comparison.

Those who said that [he must make up] two raka`at in the way that the Imam prayed them go towards the position that the default state is that a make-up prayer should be performed in the manner of the prayer missed.

Those who said that [the `Id prayer] cannot be made up, [say so] because it is a prayer [whose validity] is conditioned on [the presence of] the congregation and the Imam, similar to the Friday prayer. For this reason one is not obliged to make it up through two or four raka`at, as [even if he prayed them] they wouldn't mean anything [as a true replacement to the `Id prayer].

These two rulings are the ones in which there is a difference of opinion, by which I mean the opinions of Malik[7] and Shafi`i.

As for the rest of the rulings [mentioned] on this issue, they are weak, and meaningless, because the Friday prayer replaces, [however is different from] dhuhr, and these [i.e. the set of four raka`at] don't seem to stand in the place of anything, [in that they are prayed before the time that dhuhr comes in, so they cannot validly be considered dhuhr, and since they are four, they don't even resemble `Id or the Friday prayer. This being so,] how can one construct the analogy of one to the other for the purposes of making the prayer up?

In reality even one who misses the Friday prayer and then prays dhuhr, isn't making up the Friday prayer, as one cannot stand [equally] in the place of the other. Rather he is [only] praying [his normal] dhuhr as he missed as an [inferior] replacement for it, [i.e. the Friday prayer] which was obligatory upon him.[8]

And Allah is the One who gives the ability to find that which is correct.

----

* Ibn Rushd رحمه الله was considered to be a master of the rational sciences. It is for this reason that he digests the fiqh of the four madhhabs and the people of the sunnah from a mostly rationalist perspective. It is from this perspective that he dismisses as baseless the opinion that the `Id prayer can obviate the obligation of, or substitute for the Friday prayer.

As for one who would say that there are hadiths that indicate that the messenger of Allah, may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, allowed the people to

(i) skip the Friday prayer, after having prayed the `Id prayer, or that his blessed hadiths indicate that

(ii) the Friday prayer can be validly prayed in the time between after sunrise and noon, thus making the `Id prayer, which consists of two raka`at and a khutbah, effectively into a valid Friday prayer; the response is as follows.

The obligation of praying the Friday prayer, as well as the valid discharge of the obligation of praying the Friday prayer in the time of dhuhr is established by tawatur, meaning that it comes through so many narrations and other channels that there is no denying or questioning their validity. One who does so is deemed to be outside of the pale of Islam. This is a point on which all of the people of the sunnah agree.

If one wishes to modify either these two points they must either bring some kind of rational proof, which would be admissible as long as no hadith is explicitly contrary to it; or they must bring a hadith or narration that is at least as strong as those hadiths or narrations about the default rulings regarding the Friday prayer and its timings that they break (i) or modify (ii).

Ibn Rushd رحمه الله is methodical in showing that a rational proof is not forthcoming. He also maintains, as do the Hanafis, Malikis, Shafi`is that there is no hadith which is strong enough to prove the validity of breaking or changing the default rulings regarding the Friday prayers and its timings. This is what he means when he says "... unless there is some explicit legislation to the contrary, which [is so strong that one] is obliged to follow it."

The Hanbalis don't claim any rational backing for (i) or (ii), rather they bring some hadiths and narrations which they feel fulfill the conditions necessary to either break or modify the default rulings about the Friday prayer and its timings. It is for this reason that the people of the Sunnah hold that the views of the Hanbalis regarding this issue are a valid difference of opinion, despite the majority of sunni scholarship not accepting them as correct.

My reason for preparing this tract was not to categorically claim that the Hanbali opinion is totally baseless; rather I notice that the average Muslim in my area seems to be under the false impression that the Hanbali opinion is the only one, and that all others are incorrect. This is not only untrue, but it also ignores the fact that the obligation of praying both the `Id and Friday prayers is established by the rulings of the overwhelming majority of the scholars of Islam throughout the ages.

For further reading on the Hanbali basis for the validity of not praying the Friday prayer after praying the `Id prayer, please see al-Mughni of Ibn Qudamah al-Maqdisi.


Notes:

[1] `Aliyah here is a reference to `Awali, an area outside of the city of Madinah which extends from the border of the city, to about three miles out. The people of `Awali were expected to come to the city for the Friday prayer, except that Sayyiduna `Uthman exempted them from having to do so, if they prayed `Id on a Friday in Madinah (al-Baji, al-Muntaqa).

[2] Note that Shafi`i's opinion is that missing the Friday prayer after having prayed `Id is a dispensation for Bedouins like the people of `Awali only, and not those who actually live in the city.

[3] Sunnah Mu'akkadah according to the most correct fatwa of Malik (Khalil, al-Mukhtasar), and Wajib according to Abu Hanifah (Quduri, al-Mukhtasar).

[4] Note that the Hanafis, Malikis and Shafi`is are unanimous that residents of the city are obliged to pray both the `Id and Friday prayers. This is the preponderant majority opinion of the people of the sunnah.

[5] Please see endnote * at the end of this paper.

[6] This title is anecdotally given to one who has memorized over 100,000 hadiths, with both their texts and their chains of narration.

[7] Abu Hanifah رحمه الله and Malik رحمه الله both have the same opinion.

[8] Note that by this tract further Ibn Rushd emphatically restates his opinion that the `Id prayer logically cannot replace the Friday prayer.


http://www.ilmgate.org/is-the-friday-prayer-obligatory-after-the-id-prayer-if-id-should-fall-on-a-friday/
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#28 [Permalink] Posted on 26th October 2012 12:28
Question: Is the first Adhan (call to Prayer) for Jumu'ah (Friday) Prayer Bid'ah (innovation in religion)?

Answer: It is authentically reported that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said, "Adhere to my Sunnah (way) and the Sunnah of the righteous, Rightly-guided Caliphs after me, bite onto it with your molars (i.e. cling firmly to it)..." The Adhan for Jumu'ah (Friday) Prayer was first pronounced when the Imam (the one who leads congregational Prayer) sat on the Minbar (pulpit) during the time of the Prophet (peace be upon him), Abu Bakr, and `Umar (may Allah be pleased with them). During the caliphate of `Uthman - when the number of people increased - `Uthman ordered that a first Adhan be announced for Jumu'ah Prayer. So, it is not Bid'ah, because of the previously mentioned command of following the way of the Rightly-guided Caliphs.

The basic ruling on this is related by Al-Bukhari, Al-Nasa'y, Al-Tirmidhy, Ibn Majah, and Abu Dawud, and the wording is his: It is reported on the authority of Ibn Shihab who told that Al-Sa'ib ibn Yazid informed him saying, "The first Adhan on Friday used to be when the Imam sat on the Minbar during the time of the Prophet (peace be upon him), Abu Bakr, and `Umar (may Allah be pleased with them). But during the caliphate of `Uthman - when the number of people increased - `Uthman gave orders for the third Adhan and it was pronounced at Al-Zaura' (a place in the market of Madinah), and so it remained ever after."
(Part No. 8; Page No. 199)

Al-Qastalany, in his commentary on Al-Bukhari, said about this Hadith that the extra Adhan introduced by `Uthman was given at the beginning of the prayer time. It was called the third in the sense that it was an addition to the Adhan pronounced at the arrival of the Imam and the Iqamah (call to start the Prayer). The Iqamah was also called an Adhan, due to preponderance, because both commonly refer to prayer notification. When the number of Muslims increased, he added this Adhan through his Ijtihad (juristic effort to infer expert legal rulings) and was agreed to by all the Sahabah (Companions), by silence or lack of objection; it was, therefore, considered a tacit Ijma' (consensus).

May Allah grant us success. May peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family, and Companions.


The Permanent Committee for Scholarly Research and Ifta'
`Abdullah ibn Ghudayyan رحمه الله
`Abdul-Razzaq `Afify رحمه الله
`Abdul-`Aziz ibn `Abdullah ibn Baz رحمه الله

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#29 [Permalink] Posted on 23rd November 2012 09:42
Sayyiduna Ibn 'Abbaas رضي الله عنهما was asked about a person who fasts the day and prays the night but he does not attend the Jumu'ah [Friday Prayer] or the Jama'ah [Congregational Prayer].

He replied, "Such a person is in the Fire."


[at-Tirmidhi, with a saheeh chain]
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#30 [Permalink] Posted on 14th February 2013 10:19
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